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    Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    We are living in a country with population is exceeding 180 million people , well nothing wrong with that it’s just normal when we look at the population of our neighbors India and China .

    The thing that is wrong with Pakistan is the system or may be the people who are running the system. From a primary government school to the Parliament there are flaws everywhere.

    Few years back during Musharraf's regime we were facing problems but not that much of problems we are facing today.

    There is corruption, unemployment, poverty and many more issues existing in our society today which were never there before in Pakistan. There is load shedding but from 2008 and onwards we had gone through times when there were crisis of wheat and rice , yes I repeat again wheat and rice , so load shedding looks a small issue when we think about above mentioned crisis .

    Load shedding is also one of our major problems. Because of this issue industrial sector is suffering a lot and this is also increasing unemployment, young graduates are struggling for jobs. Business community is also struggling but they somehow are managing by increasing the costs and at the end once again common people have to suffer here too.

    These are some common problems people of Pakistan are suffering from for last couple of years or I should say during the democratic eras of PPP government and now from current PML(N) government .

    Democracy doesn't mean to somehow complete your five years of government. A democratic government is responsible to take care of the public, to solve their problems, to provide them basic necessities of life. Sadly this is not happening in Pakistan.

    Most of the people reading this will be thinking that I have discussed about the failures of democratic government without mentioning the biggest issue I.e.: war against terrorism. I didn't do that because after 18th amendment provincial governments have all the rights and funds for the development and for everything but we hardly see any development in Sindh and Punjab. I am not talking about development of KPK and Baluchistan as they are attacked by terrorists by every passing day.

    Now when we look at Musharraf's regime people were provided basic necessities of life , country was moving in forward direction , everything was going fine if not good but since the democratic government was formed in 2008 we are just moving in backward direction . Even though there are issues like Lal Masjid , Akbar Bugti's murder , emergency declared on 3 November 2007 are the issues that shattered all his good work . But still one can say very easily that Musharraf's era was by far better than recent democratic eras because he at least provided people the things they needed.

    This is one of the reasons why after some big mistakes during his era Musharraf still has so much sympathies and support from public.

    The thing people of Pakistan have learnt from Musharraf's regime and democratic era is that it’s not about dictatorship or democratic government it's actually how they run the government; it's how they develop the country. We only need basic necessities no matter it comes from a dictator or a democratic government.


    http://blogs.arynews.tv/musharrafs-r...medium=twitter





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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Then the same argument can be made that Pakistan was best served by Britishers as the build the major infrastructure and we are still following many of their laws. The fact of the matter is that a departmental store can't be run without a chain of command left alone a country. Pakistan Army through repeated Martial Laws and political interference has bastardized the whole system of governance. We need a system if we are to go anywhere in this world. If Pakistan Army is so sure inefficiency of political parties then retd Army personnel can make political party of their own and ask the pubic for votes but no one goes that way because they know Public won't trust them with votes.


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    آج پاکستان میں جو بھی بڑے بڑے مسائل ہیں، وہ اس مشرف کے دیئے ہوئے ہیں جن کے آپ قصیدے پڑھ رہے ہیں۔ لوڈ شیڈنگ کی آپ نے بات کی۔ جس طرح آبادی بڑھتی گئی بجلی کی کھپت میں اضافہ ہوتا گیا مگر بجلی پیدا نہیں کی گئی۔ آپ ہی بتائیں آپ کے کمانڈو نے ایک میگاواٹ بجلی بھی اپنے دس سالہ سرکسی دور میں پیدا نہیں کی۔ اور پھر یہ بم دھماکے اور دہشت گردی۔ مشرف دور سے پہلے کسی نے سنا تھا کہ کبھی پاکستان میں کوئی خود کش حملہ ہوا ہو۔ یہ مشرف ہی تھا جس کو امریکہ نے دم سے پکڑ کر گھما گھما کر اپنا کام لیا اور یہ اپنی بزدلی ہی سمیٹتا رہا۔ جتنا یہ بزدل ہے ہر دفعہ تو یہ پمپر لگا کر امریکی سفیر کے سامنے پیش ہوتا تھا، اس چوہے دل شخص نے پورے پاکستان کو امریکہ کے سامنا لمبا لٹا دیا اور آج امریکہ پاکستان کے ساتھ اس طرح پیش آتا ہے جیسے یہ امریکی کالونی ہو۔
    ہمیں اس بات سے کوئی لینا دینا نہیں کہ جمہوریت ہو یا آمریت۔ مگر حکمران کم از کم عوام کے فائدے کا تو سوچے۔ اگر حکمران ہی اتنا بزدل ہو کہ ہر جگہ اس کا پیشاب لیک ہوتا پھررہا ہو تو ایسے حاکم نے اپنی رعایا کی حفاظت کیا خاک کرنی ہے۔


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Quote Originally Posted by rashidfarooq View Post
    آج پاکستان میں جو بھی بڑے بڑے مسائل ہیں، وہ اس مشرف کے دیئے ہوئے ہیں جن کے آپ قصیدے پڑھ رہے ہیں۔ لوڈ شیڈنگ کی آپ نے بات کی۔ جس طرح آبادی بڑھتی گئی بجلی کی کھپت میں اضافہ ہوتا گیا مگر بجلی پیدا نہیں کی گئی۔ آپ ہی بتائیں آپ کے کمانڈو نے ایک میگاواٹ بجلی بھی اپنے دس سالہ سرکسی دور میں پیدا نہیں کی۔ اور پھر یہ بم دھماکے اور دہشت گردی۔ مشرف دور سے پہلے کسی نے سنا تھا کہ کبھی پاکستان میں کوئی خود کش حملہ ہوا ہو۔ یہ مشرف ہی تھا جس کو امریکہ نے دم سے پکڑ کر گھما گھما کر اپنا کام لیا اور یہ اپنی بزدلی ہی سمیٹتا رہا۔ جتنا یہ بزدل ہے ہر دفعہ تو یہ پمپر لگا کر امریکی سفیر کے سامنے پیش ہوتا تھا، اس چوہے دل شخص نے پورے پاکستان کو امریکہ کے سامنا لمبا لٹا دیا اور آج امریکہ پاکستان کے ساتھ اس طرح پیش آتا ہے جیسے یہ امریکی کالونی ہو۔
    ہمیں اس بات سے کوئی لینا دینا نہیں کہ جمہوریت ہو یا آمریت۔ مگر حکمران کم از کم عوام کے فائدے کا تو سوچے۔ اگر حکمران ہی اتنا بزدل ہو کہ ہر جگہ اس کا پیشاب لیک ہوتا پھررہا ہو تو ایسے حاکم نے اپنی رعایا کی حفاظت کیا خاک کرنی ہے۔

    مشرف اور الطاف حسين اور ہندو بنيا ان تينوں کا بلکل ايک ہي سا انداذ ہے ہميشہ کمزور پر ظلم کرنا اور طاقتور کي غلامي يہ ان تينوں ميں قدر مشترک ہے جس طرح ہندو بنيا پيٹھ پيچھے سے وار کرے گا بزدلوں کي طرح مشرف نے بھي ويسا ہي کيا اور الطاف حسين کي بھي يہي خصلت ہے


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Musharraf Era was best in 63-year history of Pakistan: Dr. Salman Shah

    I'd like to see a healthy debate on the Bolded Text. Please without taking any sides and Impartially Admit or Deny the revealings with your own facts and figures. Thanks.


    Musharraf era was best in 63-year history of Pakistan: Dr. Salman Shah

    Former minister says Shaukat Tareen’s policies responsible for economic crisis

    By Shabbir Sarwar

    LAHORE: Former finance minister Dr Salman Shah on Sunday claimed that the Musharraf regime was the best in over 60 years history of the country as far as the economic indicators and growth rate were concerned.

    Addressing a discussion titled “Pakistan’s economic crisis and its solution: Who is responsible for price hike in Pakistan”, he said Shaukat Tareen’s policies brought a downfall to the national economy.

    “We had left $16 billion reserves in 2007 which have now fell to only $6 billion and ultimately the government has to beg form the International Monetary Fund (IMF),” he said, adding that the IMF had offered loan on soft conditions in 2005 after the earthquake but the Musharraf government had rejected it.

    He said the IMF loans would gradually destroy the national economy. “Pakistan’s external debts were $40 billion in 2008, which have now increased to $58 billion in just two and a half years and internal debts have also reached $40 billion,” Dr Salman said.

    He said it was not the defence budget but the debt servicing which was responsible for the increase in inflation.

    He said the interest rate was zero in US, 1-2 percent in Europe, 6 percent in India while in Pakistan the IMF wanted to take it to 15 percent, which was totally unjustified and a cause of inflation.

    “We are currently facing cost-pulled inflation while the measures to control it are taken on the basis of demand-pulled which are making the condition worse,” he said, adding that only 17 percent people were living below the poverty line in 2007-08 while the number had now increased to 40 percent.

    “Pakistan is blessed with young population that can be converted into an economic force. Three million new jobs are needed for the young population in the country and for this purpose an increase of eight percent in the growth rate is required annually otherwise the lava of population would ultimately blast with a bang,” he said, adding the GDP was falling since 2007 and there was a fear of negative GDP figures keeping in view the existing trends.

    Earlier, Privatisation Commission member Iftikharul Haq gave a detailed presentation about the price hike since 1947 and also discussed various factors and policies, which were responsible for increase in inflation rate. He criticised the culture of extravagance and said that defence budget’s 20 percent was spent on unjustified expenditures. “The size of our cabinet is very large as the US has only 13 to 14 ministers while we are bearing the burden of more than 90 ministers,” he said. He held corruption, high population growth rate, energy crisis, high interest rate, black economy and poor management responsible for increase in inflation.

    In the end, the TECH Society President Dr Sadiq presented a vote of thanks and stressed that in order to control price of a commodity its supply should be increased in the market.

    http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010%5C11\15\story_15-11-2010_pg7_20


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    50 reasons Pakistan needs Musharraf

    By Syed Ali Raza Abidi Published: October 9, 2010




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    The General is poised to return

    Prime Minister Gilani said atthe National Assembly session to leave former president Pervez Musharraf to himself and let him exercise his right to a political career in Pakistan. President Zardari said that if Musharraf wants to return, he will have to cross the same bumpy road as him to get to the presidency or premiership. Nawaz Sharif, Chaudhry Shujaat and the remaining politicians, including religious parties, want him tried for treason, Dr Aafia’s case and introducing extremism in the country.
    Since the launch of his party on October 1, Musharraf has been on a political offensive. He has talked about the deal with Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto. He has also reportedly accepted that the military trained jihadis to force India to the discussion table to resolve the Kashmir issue – a statement which he has now backtracked from.
    His opinions and speeches have led most of his opponents to start wondering what he’s been smoking!
    However, these are just some of the achievements of the man when he was in and out of uniform.
    1. Nine world class engineering universities were developed and 18 public universities further developed.
    2. Pakistan was ranked third in world banking profitability.
    3. The IT industry was valued at around $2 billion, including $1 billion in exports and employed around 90,000 professionals.
    4. The CNG sector attracted over $70 billion in investment in the past five years and created 45,000 jobs.
    5. The telecommunications sector attracted around $10 billion in investments and created over 1.3 million jobs.
    6. Industrial parks were set up throughout the country for the first time.
    7. Mega projects such as the Saindak, Rekodiq, marble production, coal production, mining and quarrying were pursued.
    8. Foreign reserves increased from $700 million to $17 billion.
    9. The Karachi stock market went from 700 points to 15,000 points.
    10. The literacy rate improved by 11 per cent.
    11. Poverty decreased by 10 per cent.
    12. Four dams were built: Mirani, Subakzai, Gomalzam, Khurram, and Tangi,
    13. Seven motorways were completed or were under construction,
    14. Gwadar, an advanced sea port, was developed,
    15. 650 kilometres of coastal highways were constructed.
    16. A historic 100% increase in tax collection (amounting to Rs1 trillion) was observed.
    17. Large scale manufacturing was at a 30-year high, and construction at a 17-year high.
    18. Copper and gold deposits were found in Chagai, worth about $600 million annually if sold.
    19. A new oil refinery with the UAE that could process 300,000 oil barrels a day was established.
    20. The industrial sector registered 26 per cent growth.
    21. The economy was the third fastest growing economy after China and India .
    22. The Institute of Space Technology was established.
    23. Sardar Bahadur Khan Women University Quetta was established.
    24. The University of Science and Technology, Bannu, was established.
    25. The University of Hazara was founded.
    26. The Malakand University in Chakdara was established.
    27. The University of Gujrat was established
    28. The Virtual University of Pakistan was established
    29. Sarhad University of IT in Peshawar was established
    30. The National Law University in Islamabad was established
    31. The Media University in Islamabad was established
    32. University of Education in Lahore was established
    33. Lasbela University of Marine Sciences, Baluchistan, was established
    34. Baluchistan University of IT & Management, Quetta (2002)
    35. The Pakistan economy was worth $ 160 billion in 2007
    36. GDP Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) was $ 475.5 billion in 2007
    37. The GDP per Capita in 2007 was $ 1000
    38. Revenue collection in 2007/08 was Rs1.002 billion
    39. Exports in 2007were worth $18.5 billion
    40. Textile exports in 2007 were worth $11.2 billion
    41. Foreign direct investment in 2007 was $8.5 billion
    42. Debt servicing in 2007 was 26 per cent of the GDP
    43. The poverty level in 2007 was 24 per cent
    44. The literacy rate in 2007 was 53 per cent
    45. Pakistan development programs in 2007 were valued at Rs520 billion
    46. The Karachi stock exchange in 2007 was $70 billion at 15,000 points
    47. Exports in 2007: $18.5 billion
    48. Pakistan now has a total of 245,682 educational institutions in all categories, including 164,579 in the public sector and 81,103 in the private sector, according to the National Education Census (NEC-2005).
    49. There are now more than 5,000 Pakistanis doing PhDs in foreign countries on scholarship. 300 Pakistanis receive PhD degrees every year, in 1999, the number was just 20.
    50. In total, 99,319 educational institutions increased in Musharraf’s era!
    This was some of the good Musharraf delivered to Pakistan during his martially-democratic rule from 1999 to 2008. Strange how quickly we forget his foreign policy efforts, which helped elevate the image of Pakistan globally added acceptance value to our green passports. Even the Indians next door were ready to discuss Kashmir for a solution and praised the man for his sincerity, honesty and amicable handling of the issues.
    Of course, he has the right to tell his opponents, “tameez say baat karo, warna munh toor jawab millayga” and it is true that most of them are keeping quiet since he said this in a recent interview with Express TV.
    I feel he knows more than what he has already said so far, and may explode if not “handled with caution”. This goes for all the politicians cum armed forces of Pakistan. Hence, be careful everyone, the General is coming back as a civilian!



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    Syed Ali Raza Abidi

    A businessman who writes on politics and civic issues. He completed his masters in business administration from Boston University. He tweets @abidifactor.



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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Media Watchdog
    Pervez Musharraf deserves a second chance, our economy needs him!

    By Nabeel Muhammad Published: March 30, 2013




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    He took major steps to empower the Pakistani women in our Local and National Assemblies. PHOTO: REUTERS

    Over the last five years, one question that has remained of integral significance amongst political contentions has been; was former military chief Pervez Musharraf better than this current ‘battered but not shattered’ democracy?
    You can easily find a group of people who believe that his ‘martially-democratic’ epoch from 1999 to 2008 was better than the current democracy we have.
    There is no doubt about it; his policies were a huge turn on for economic developments and they deserve extolment. But on the way, Mr Commando made some huge mistakes which instigated a drastic series of social and political turmoil.
    Even if I try to use sasti (insubstantial) Pakistani political arguments, I cannot refute the fact that during the Commando’s era, economic conditions were much, much better. The economy, in general, was doing great; there were more jobs and businesses were recording higher profits.
    “I remember the Musharraf period was great in terms of business and political peace; we were hiring extensively as compared to now. Actually, not only us, the software industry, were hiring, but job-seeking graduates were more comfortable at that time about getting jobs as compared to now. That’s my observation”, Salim Ghauri, chairman and CEO at NetSol Technologies told me in a brief conversation.
    According to the reports by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Pakistan was the third fastest growing economy after China and India during that era.
    In 2002, the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) was declared the “Best Performing Stock Market of the World for the year 2002”.
    Our industrial sector registered 26.5% growth on average. Manufacturing and construction sectors recorded a 30 year and 17 year high, respectively. The highest increase in tax collection of around Rs1trillion was injected in government revenues.
    Amazingly, Pakistan railway was making profits. Other indicators include a drastic decrease in poverty. CNG fuel, information technology and especially the telecommunication sectors registered massive growths, and the dollar was just at Rs60.
    Musharraf even played a significant role in transforming the infrastructure of this country. Four dams (Subakzai, Gomalzam, Khurram and Tangi) were constructed during his period.
    He initiated the plans to work on seven motorways in different areas of Pakistan; some were completed during his period and others remained under construction. Advanced Gawadar port, Kachi Canal Project, Lyari Expressway and a 650km long coastal highway are also among the many achievements of Musharraf’s period.
    Pervez Musharraf can also be hailed as the liberator of the media; being a dictator, he was the only one who seemed confident enough of himself and his countrymen to have given Pakistani’s the freedom of speech as well. He took major steps to empower the Pakistani women in our local and national assemblies and his aggressive education policy contributed to major positive riffles in Pakistan’s education system; our literacy rate improved by 11% during his period.
    Nine well equipped engineering universities and 18 public universities, all over Pakistan irrespective of ethnic orientations, were made during his time. Several technical colleges and institutions also spurted during his reign.
    Pakistan’s launched its first satellite, Paksat-1, in his time – Musharraf made it happen. His remarkable words cannot be forgotten:
    “Pakistan’s space programme is now ahead of India after the formal launching of Paksat-1 and this is due to the hard work of our scientists, and I am sure Indians would take another 30 months to do the job.”
    It was during his time that after years, the issue of Jammu and Kashmir was on the front table for talks.
    In spite of all these accomplishments that he brought to our economy, unfortunately he simultaneously took some bad decisions, too, that wiped out all the credit that we owe him. Some people still blame him for the current political and social turmoil.
    Is it more likely that though Pervez Musharraf did well for the economy in his tenure he simultaneously created some negative externalities too?
    A group of analysts even believe that his policies were short-termed and they mystify the general public of the long term impact of his wrong doings.
    Issues of Aafia Siddiqui, Akbar Bugti and the National Reconciliation Order (NRO), opening of borders for American troops, the Lal Masjid operation and the lawyers’ movements are some of the weak points of Pervez Musharraf’s tenure.
    Can I say that he planted a ‘time bomb of social and political upheaval’ and that bomb exploded right after his tenure?
    Finally after a self-imposed exile of four and a half years, Pervez Musharraf is back with great vigour in spite of the death threats from the Taliban and even the threat of a possible arrest. Carrying the new slogan “Save Pakistan” but the same old clichéd agenda “Sub say pehlay Pakistan” (Pakistan first), he made it clear to his supporters at the airport that he had been a soldier and had taken oath to defend the country at any price.
    He even criticised the people who suspected that he will never return home. He further said that it pained him to see the lawlessness, poverty, and unrest in the country. In his address, he especially mentioned that Karachi is a city for all – for Sindhis, Pathans, Balochis, Bengalis, Punjabis and Muhajirs – and the people of Karachi should now stop fighting over petty issues.
    His supporters from all over Pakistan managed to reach the airport to welcome him, but their enthusiasm was dimmer than the verve of their leader, Pervez Musharraf. There were, it appeared, more police personnel than his supporters at the airport.
    Recently, Musharraf denied almost all the allegations against him; he said that he is proud of the Kargil operation and denied handing Dr Aafia Siddiqui to the United States, calling whoever did so a traitor.
    Musharraf has even successfully obtained bail from court to avoid arrest. On Friday, the court approved his application to extend his interim bail for up to 21 days on Friday. Upon his arrival at the Sindh High Court, Musharraf was welcomed by a multitude of protesting lawyers chanting slogans against him. One even tried to throw a shoe at him. Whether such misdemeanour suits these ‘sophisticated’ lawyers is another issue for consideration.
    Currently our judicial system is much stronger under the tutelage of Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry than before.
    I believe competing in the elections on the basis of fair grounds and equal chances would not be aproblem for Pervez Musharraf;however, victory surely seems like an issue for him and his party, All Pakistan Muslim League (APML).
    If given one more chance, will Musharraf be able to do great once more for our economy as a democratic leader, or was he just good enough in his Commando jacket?
    Will Musharraf be in a position to pursue his economic plans with the same ease and consensus in a democratic government as he was able to do in his previous tenure?
    Is our democratic system just too corrupt or “cursed” to boost economic growth, or does democracy have too many constraints in the case of Pakistan to do something substantial for our economy?
    In my opinion, Musharraf had an admirable economic road map to transform our economy and resolve the particular issues of poverty and education. I think that he still possess some of that charm.
    I must admit, though, it is tough to put faith in him once again. But Pervez Musharraf has his own virtues and vices like any other politician. Besides, Pakistanis have a long history of bringing back our impeached leaders.
    I think we should give Commando one more chance, but now as a pure economic-democrat, not an economic-commando.



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    Nabeel Muhammad

    An undergraduate Economics student at Lahore University of Management Sciences.



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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Musharraf Era performance: Pakistan Flourishes

    Compiled By: Afreen Baig and Mirza Rohail B
    ©Our leader – Musharraf
    All this is all the more amazing when one considers that just six years ago, Pakistan was on the verge of bankruptcy, with only a little more than $1bn in foreign exchange reserves and its stock market teetering at 1,000 points (worth $5 billion only) and foreign debt servicing at 65% of GDP. Our exports were at a pitiful $7.5 billion.
    The once ever-declining rupee stood stable at around 60-61 to a dollar since President Musharraf took over. Of the 184 member countries of the IMF, Pakistan’s rate of economic growth 7% is one of the best in the world. The Karachi stock market is now above 13,000 points and worth around $65 billion. Now foreign debt servicing has lowered to become 28%. Our exports increased to become $18 billion.
    1. Pakistan economy is among the fastest growing economies in the world as its economy has reached the size of $170 billion in 2008 from a mere $70 billion in 1999. Pakistan attracted a record FDI of $8.4 billion in 2007.
    2. 2007: National revenues had swelled from Rs 308 billion during 1988-99 to around Rs 800bn in 2008; and Federal Board of Revenue estimates now 2.8 million Income Tax payers.
    Year Total CBR Direct Indirect Custom Sales Central excise
    1998-99 308.5bn 110.4bn 198.1bn 65.3bn 72bn 60.8bn
    2005-06 712.5bn 224.6bn 487.9bn 138.2bn 294.6bn 55bn
    2008-09 810.3bn 305bn – 105.3bn 319.3bn 80.5bn (2008-09 Progressive)
    3. Public sector development program (PSDP) has also grown from Rs 80 billion in 1999; to Rs 520 billion in 2007 and increased further to Rs 549.7 billion in 2008.
    4. FACT of 2006-07: The rate of growth in Pakistan Large Scale Manufacturing (LSM) is at a 30-year high. Construction activity is at a 17-year high.
    LSM: 1999-00 was 1.5% and 2004-05 was 19.9% and 2006-07 was 8.6% and 2007-8 is 5%.
    5. FACT of 2007: The Infrastructure Industries Index, which measures the performance of Seven industries, i.e. Electricity generation, Natural gas, Crude oil, Petroleum products, Basic metal, Cement and coal, has recorded a 26.2 percent growth in Industrial sector of Pakistan.
    6. FACT of 2006-07: Jan 14: Pakistan now has a total of 245,682 Educational institutions in all categories, including 164,579 (i.e. 67 per cent) in the public sector and 81,103 (i.e. 100 per cent) in the private sector, reports the National Education Census (NEC-2005). The census — jointly conducted by the Ministry of Education, the Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) and the Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS) — reveals that the number of private-sector institutions has increasedfrom 36,096 in 1999-2000 to 81,103 in 2005, i.e. by 100 per cent. 45,007 Educational Institutions have increased in President Musharraf Era.
    7. FACT of 2006-07: Pakistan is 3rd in world in Banking profitability, a report of IMF said. On the IMF chart, in late 2006, Pakistan’s banking profitability is on third position after Colombia and Venezuela. On the IMF chart India is on 36th position and China is on 40th position. Pakistan’s Banking sector turned profitable in 2002. Their profits continued to rise for the next five years and peaked to Rs 84.1 ($1.1 billion) billion in 2006. Pakistan’s Financial Services
    8. 11 May 2009: By producing 7.746 tonnes of gold during the last five years – 2004 to 2008Pakistan has joined the ranks of gold producing countries. According to the data with the Saindak Metal Limited – during the last five years – Pakistan has produced 86,013 tonnes of copper, 7.746 tonne gold and 11.046 tonne silver, besides the production of 14,482 tonnes of magnetite concentrate (iron), bringing in a total of $633.573 million.

    9. In 1999 what we earned as GDP: we used to give away 64.1 % as foreign debt and liabilities. Now in 2008, what we earn as GDP: we give ONLY 26.9 % as foreign debt and liabilities. Now we are SAVING above 35 % of Our GDP for economic growth.
    According to Department of Finance, External debt & liabilities (EDL) and DAWN:
    1988 – $ 18 bn
    1990 – $ 20.5 bn
    1999 – $ 38.9 bn
    2000 – $ 35.48 bn
    2001 – $ 37.2 bn
    2002 – $ 34.8 bn
    2003 – $ 35.4 bn
    2004 – $ 35.3 bn
    2005 – $ 35.8 bn
    2006 – $ 37.6 bn
    2007 – $ 40.5 bn
    2008 – $ 45.9 bn
    2009 – $ 50 bn
    10. According to Economic Survey 2005. Poverty in Pakistan in 2001 was 34.46%. And, now after 7 years of President Musharraf; Poverty in 2005 was 23.9%. Poverty DECREASED by 10.56%. Overall, 12 million people have been pushed out of Poverty during 2001 -2005!
    11. 2007: Literacy rate in Pakistan has increased from 45% (in 2002) to 53% (in 2005). And, Education now receives 4% of GDP and English has been introduced as compulsory subject from grade 1.
    12. 12-4-07: The IT industry, which was virtually non-existent seven years ago, has grown to be worth $2 billion of which $1 billion is export related. It rregistered a 50% growth. 55 foreign IT companies have already entered the market. Now the sector employed 90,000 professionals.

    13. 30-1-08: The government has decided to set up a modern hospital cum Medical University in collaboration with the Harvard Medical International, USA, at a cost of Rs 18 billion. The university will be built at the Defence Housing Authority (DHA), Islamabad. A total of 2,500 students will be taught at the graduate level, while additional 600 seats will be available for postgraduate research courses.
    14. Nov 2006: President Musharraf says that Pakistan will set up Nine Engineering World Class Science and Technology Federal Universities by 2008 with foreign assistance. He said the institutions of higher learning would be established in collaboration with Italy, South Korea, Japan, France, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, Austria and China. The Cost of building these Foreign Universities will be above Rs 96.5 billion.
    The Vice Chancellors, Heads of department, Professors and Faculty of the planned university will be from these Foreign Universities; while the Examination system, Quality assurance followed and the Degree awarded will also be from these Foreign Universities.
    15. Government has approved to give at least 4% of GDP to Education in 2007 budget.
    16. In 1999-2000 there were 31 Public Universities. Now 2005-2006 there are 49 Public Universities. HEC setup 47 new Universities.
    a) Air University (established 2002)
    b) Institute of Space technology, ISB (established 2002)
    c) Sardar Bahadur Khan Women University, Quetta (established 2004)
    d) University of Science & Technology, Bannu (established 2005)
    e) University of Hazara (founded 2002)
    f) Malakand university, Chakdara (established 2002)
    g) Karakurum International university, Gilgit (established 2002)
    h) University of Gujrat (established 2004)
    i) Virtual University of Pak, Lahore (established 2002)
    j) Sarhad University of IT, Peshawar (established 2001)
    k) National Law University, ISB (2007)
    l) Media University, ISB (2007)
    m) University of Education, Lahore (2002)
    n) Lasbella University of Marine Sciences, Baluchistan (2005)
    o) Baluchistan University of IT & Management, Quetta (2002), etc.
    17. 6-member delegation of Australian Department of Education, Science & Technology and AusAID, is visited Pakistan on the request of PM Shaukat Aziz to help Pakistan in its efforts to realign its TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training) according to the market needs. Chairman NAVTEC Altaf Saleem informed the delegation about NAVTEC plans to increase the capacity to train one million people annually by 2010 from the present annual capacity of 320,000.
    18. Defense Exports of Pakistan have crossed the $200 million mark as the country’s robust Defense manufacturing industry continues to expand. This was disclosed by Major General Syed Absar Hussain, Director General, Defense Export Promotion Organization; after IDEAS 2006 Karachi . Defense Industry UAV.
    19. President Musharraf inaugurated an over Rs. 1.36 billion 18 Mega Watt Naltar hydro power project. The project, completed in four years at Naltar near Gilgit.
    20. Pakistan is now in Large-scale Nuclear expansion. The reactor under construction… could produce over 200kg of weapons-grade plutonium per year, assuming it operates at full power for a modest 220 days per year. At 4 to 5 kilograms of plutonium per weapon, this stock would allow the production of 40-50 Nuclear weapons a year,” the report said.
    21. TheKarachiPortTrust (KPT) and Hutchison Port Holdings (HPH) of Hong Kong will sign a concession agreement tomorrow for setting up a US$1 billion Deep-water container port, the first in Pakistan. KPT will invest $450 million for infrastructure development for the project. HPH will invest $557 million. In the first phase, a 1,500m quay wall will be built with a designed dept of 18m.
    22. GILGIT: President Musharraf inaugurated the dry port in the border town of Sust, 200km north of Gilgit. The Dry port, a Pakistan-China joint venture, was built in 2004 at a cost of Rs90 million. It is 10,000-foot high Sust Dry Port.
    23. Dec 2006: President Musharraf said many canals, including the Thal and Raini canals, were being constructed for better utilization of the water available. He said Rs66 billion was being spent on brick-lining of 87,000 canals in the country, adding that 6,000 new canals would be brick-lined next year.
    24. The Private Power Infrastructure Board (PPIB) has approved expansion of Tarbela dam power project that would generate 960 MW costing $500 million.
    25. President Musharraf inaugurated the Mirani Dam. Mirani Dam in Kech area of Mekran district with a catchment area of 12,000 square kilometre has been built in four years at a cost ofRs6 billion that includes Rs1.5 billion in compensation to the affected people. It will have a storage capacity of over 300,000 million acre feet of water.
    26. Gomal Zam Dam: This projectstarted Aug 2002 and is expected to be completed early 2008. It is located in the Damaan in NWFP. It is 437 feet high and will irrigate about 163,000 acres of land. The total costs amounts to Rs. 12 billion. Having a gross storage of 1.14 MAF. It will produce 17.4 MW of electricity.
    27. Subakzai Dam: President Pervez Musharraf inaugurated Rs 1.58 billion Subakzai dam in Zhob, Balochistan. Subakzai dam has been constructed on Sawa Rud River. Height of 34.75 meters and length of 395 meters. The aggregate water storage capacity is 32,700 acre feet. Around 80 tones of fish would be available from the lake. 15,000 people would get drinking water. A 21.5 kms road has been constructed from the Zhob-Quetta highway to the dam site.
    27. President Mushrraf says the government is constructing the Rs40 billion Katchi Canal and Punjab had been gracious to provide land for its 350 kilometre stretch that will pass through the province.
    28. The Economic Coordination Committee decided to set up a $2-billion mega Oil refinery at Khalifa Point in district Hub, Balochistan. The refinery, commissioned by 2010, would have a maximum refining capacity of 13 million tons of petroleum products – higher than the country’s total existing capacity of 12.8 million tons.
    29. Pakistan Steel Mills Corporation (PSMC) during the quarter July-Sept 2007 recorded the highest ever-sales figure of Rs 9.3012 billion.
    30. The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) sector of Pakistan has attracted over Rs 70 billion investments during the last five years as a result of liberal and encouraging policies of the government. Presently, some 1,765 CNG stations are operating in the country, in 85 cities and towns, and 1000 more would be setup in the next three years. It has provided employment to 30,000 people in the country.
    31. The Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) has registered 1,135 companies during the first quarter (July-September 2007). With the new registrations the total number of registered companies with SECP as on September 30 has reached 50,125.
    32. Telecom sector has attracted an investment of $ 9 billion in last three years. It created of 80,000 jobs directly and 500,000 jobs indirectly.
    33. Corrupt & Incompetent Nawaz Sharif made one motorway M2 (Lahore – Islamabad). Under President Musharraf 6 Motorways completed or under construction: Pakistan Motorways & Highways.
    M1 (Islamabad to Peshawar) – (Rs.13 bn) – [155 km] – (started 2003 – Completed Oct 2007)
    M3 (Pindi to Faisalabad) – (Rs.5.6 bn) – [53 km] – (started 2002 – Completed 2004)
    M8 (Gwadar to Ratodero) – [1072 km] – (started 2004 – will complete 2009)
    M9 (Karachi to Hyderabad) – (Rs.6.3 bn) – [136 km] – (
    M10 (Karachi Northern bypass) – (Rs 3.5 bn) – [56 km] – (completed 2007)
    M11 (Lahore to Sialkot) – (Rs.23 bn) -[101 km] – (started 2006 – under construction)
    34. Under President Musharraf various Highways under construction throughout the country. Including N5, N-25, N-35, N-45, N-50, N-55, N-65, N-70, N-75, N-80, S-1, etc.
    35. President Musharraf inaugurated the Makran Coastal Highway (N-10) project in August 2001, consisting of Karachi-Gwadar, Pasni-Gwadar, and Ormara-Liari (Balochistan) Highways. The Liari-Ormara Highway costed Rs3.9 billion and Pasni-Gwadar Highway Rs2.8 billion respectively. The total length of Makran Coastal Highway is 533 kilometers.”
    36. 2-12-07: Sialkot International Airport Limited (SIAL) completed. The 1,002-acre airport is 13 km west of Sialkot and is linked by a road to Gujranwala, Wazirabad, Gujrat, Narowal, the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) and the Sialkot Dry Port Trust.
    37. Ghandara International Airport (Islamabad) the first-ever green-field airport being built at a cost of $400 million; with a renowned international consultant, Louis Berger Group of USA. President Musharraf laid the foundation stone of the project on April 7, 2007 and will be completed by Dec 2010. Its total area is 3700 acres (15 km˛).
    38. Major Industrial estates are being developed under President Musharraf’s vision: M3 Industrial estate, Sundar Industrial estate, Chakri Industrial, Port Qasim Industrial estate, etc.
    39. Oct 2007: In the current fiscal year the Mining and Quarrying sector has registered a growth rate of 5.6 percent. Increased growth was propelled by strong growths recorded in magnetite (30 percent), dolomite (26.1 percent), Limestone (25.2 percent) and chromites.
    40. The government has already started various initiatives, to discover and develop world-class copper-gold deposits in Chagai Baluchistan; by Australian Firms that would fetch $500 million to $600 million per year.
    41. Major reserves of COPPER & GOLD in Baluchistan’s Rekodiq area have been discovered in early 2006. It has ranked Rekodiq among the world’s top seven copper reserves. The Rekodiq mining area has proven estimated reserves of 2 billion tons of copper and 20 million ounces of gold. According to the current market price, the value of the deposits has been estimated at about $65 billion, which would generate thousands of jobs.
    42. Executive Committee of National Economic Council (ECNEC) on Wednesday approved 45 developmental projects in its meeting, including six revised projects with a total cost of Rs 154.1 billion with a foreign exchange component (FEC) of Rs 36.8 billion.
    43. Rs 9.8 billion have been allocated for 91 different mega projects at Public Sector Universities across the province, said Sindh Governor Dr Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan.
    44. Oct 2007: A fully functional TMS (Tax Management System), including profiling, withholding, return/payment filing, rectification, refunds, audit, and legal tracking is scheduled to be operational by 2007 in Pakistan, to process the tax year 2007 returns, according to World Bank.
    45. The government is providing Sui Gas facility to areas of South Punjab at a cost of Rs 1.311 billion. A total of 1,138 kilometre gas pipeline is being laid. The districts benefiting from these schemes mainly include Multan, Khanewal, Bahawalnagar, Rajanpur, DG Khan, Vehari and Muzaffargarh.
    46. The KHI city government’s rehabilitation of Industrial zones and improvement plan for all those four industrial zones, of the city needs to be completed in 7-8 months. Projects worth Rs 2.5 billion and beautification Rs 4.5 billion.
    47. 27-11-07: Pakistan Navy Ship Zarrar, the first of Multi-Role Tactical Platform (MRTP-33), was commissioned into Pakistan Navy at a ceremony at PN Dockyard.
    48. 29-12-07: City Nazim Mustafa Kamal said the construction work of 47-storey IT Tower in the vicinity of Civic Center at a cost of $200m would start soon. Around 40,000 youth would get employment in the IT Tower. It will have 10,000 call centers of which 6,000 have been booked so far.
    49. The President approved the project of laying of 940-kilometre-long “standard gauge” Railway track between Gwadar and Quetta that would cost Rs 75 billion. A German firm won the contract.
    50. To increase the income of Farmers, the Government is investing Rs7.80 billion under which a Food Security Program will be launched. Initially it will be launched in 1,000 villages. He said Rs 3.60 billion would be invested in live-stocks and dairy sectors. About 1,200 model dairy farms and 2,950 cattle breeding farms will be established under this investment.
    51. Pakistan will launch a Self-controlled Remote Sensing Satellite System (RSSS) at a cost of Rs19.3 billion to ensure strategic and unconditional supply of satellite remote sensing data for any part of the globe over the year. SUPARCO will implement it over a period of six years. President Musharraf has approved the project in principle.
    52. Governor inaugurated the DUHS Medical Research City with Dow Diagnostic Reference and Research Laboratories and Jinnah Genome Centre as its important components. He also laid the foundation stone for a library and sports complex which houses different constituent institutions of the university.
    53. President Musharraf also inaugurated a 50-bed state-of-the-art Workers Welfare Fund Kidney Center. The first-ever kidney center in Baluchistan, constructed on 7.5 acres at a cost of Rs385 million and having the diagnostic, dialysis, surgical and lab facilities will help the people of this area.
    54. Karachi: The building of the 50-bed Kidney Centre in Landhi has been completed. Minister Muhammad Adil Siddiqui . He said that the building of this centre had been built at a cost of Rs70 million.
    55. CM Pervaiz Elahi inaugurated Pakistan’s first Software technology park (STP) on Ferozpur Road to be implemented by Punjab IT Board (PITB). The Rs 1.5 billion project is set over area of 32 kanals; will be completed in 12 months and is expected to create direct 10,000 jobs and generate economic activity of Rs 9 billion per year.
    56. In what is considered a major leap for Pakistan, a Polytechnic Institute is being established to produce skilled workforce that will rescue the manufacturing industry from the clutches of foreign dependence. Being built in Korangi at a cost of Rs450 million, this government-funded institute will start operating in January 2007 and prepare 500 workers by the end of first year, besides producing 22 different types of dies and moulds for aviation, telecom, pharmaceutical and other industries. Experts from Germany, Japan and Thailand assisted in developing curriculum.
    57. Police Act 1861 replaced by Police Order 2002 after 141 years. Police force divided into three separate wings: Watch and ward, Investigation and Prosecution.
    58. Federal Minister for Commerce in order to modernize tobacco farming in the country; is setting up a state-of-the-art Tobacco Research Center in Bunner. Annually 8 million kilograms of Virginia tobacco (fine quality), worth Rs 9.2 billion is cultivated in Bunner. Under construction.
    59. The government has formed “Pakistan Gems and Jewellery Development Company (PGJDC)” with a cost of Rs 1.4 billion, to increase the export of gem and Jewellery from $25 million to $1.5 billion by 2017.
    60. In 1999, Pakistanis could only afford to buy a total of 32,461 locally assembled Cars. The latest annual figure stands at 115,000. Currently, there are 1.3 million cars on Pakistani roads as opposed to 815,000 cars some five years ago; a 60 percent jump in car ownership.
    61. In 1999, a total of 94,881 new Motorcycles were sold in Pakistan. In 2005, Pakistanis bought or leased some 500,000 new motorcycles.
    62. ISB: To convert the Karachi Fisheries Harbour Authority (KFHA) in a style of Sydney Fish Market, the government proposes an action plan worth $10 million so as to make the KFHA a profitable authority. Estimated, Pakistan has a fish and seafood industry worth $1.2 billion. Exports alone are worth nearly $200 million per annum. More than 0.8 million people rely directly or indirectly on the industry for their livelihood.
    63. FACT: Pakistan globally ranks 10th among the countries which were among the most active in perusing pro-business policies. A report “Doing Business in 2006″ co-sponsored by World Bank and International Finance Corporation (IFC).
    64. Lowari Tunnel: A project worth Rs.8 billion, started in 2005 and inaugurated by General Musharraf in 2006. A 9 km long, 7.5 metre wide tunnel being built by a Korean firm, which would be the biggest freight tunnel in Asia. It’s rail tunnel that will provide all-weather communication access to Chitral Valley. It will also facilitate Pakistan’s link with landlocked Central Asian state of Tajikistan via a narrow strip of Afghanistan. It will cut distance between Peshawar and Chitral by half.
    65. NADRA: On 10 March, 2000, NDO & Directorate General of Registration (DGR) were merged to form NADRA. NADRA launched the Multi-Biometric National Identity Card project, developed in conformance with international security documentation issuance practices, to replace the old system that had been in place since 1971. Over 96 million citizens utilized the system. NADRA has developed 365 Multi-biometric Interactive Registration Centers and deployed 189 mobile vans to register citizens.
    Visit the Economic website: http://economicpakistan.wordpress.com/


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era



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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    GOVT PERFORMANCE 2000 – 2008

    Posted on April 23, 2013
    By : Pervez Musharraf
    1. Responsibility. Ensure Security, progress and development of Pakistan and welfare/wellbeing of its people.
    2. Security.
    a. External Threat
    1) Al Khalid tanks for Army.
    2) JF 17 Thunder Fighter jets for PAF.
    3) AWAC Surveillance aircraft for PAF.
    4) Frigates for Navy.
    5) P3C Surveillance aircraft for Navy.
    6) All missiles tested and proven for nuclear capability.
    7) Nuclear arsenal strengthened and protected.
    8) Army Strategic Force Command created.
    b. Internal threat
    1) Law and order in Karachi controlled.
    2) Terrorism in Balochistan controlled.
    3) Sectarian terrorism controlled.
    4) Spread of Talibanisation controlled.
    5) Strategy against extremism being implemented.
    (Focus on Mosques, books/publications, extremist/militant organization, school syllabus, madrassahs)
    3. Progress and Development of Pakistan
    a. Economy. Core strategy of privatisation, deregulation and liberalization
    1) GDP growth – $63 billion to $170 billion.
    2) Annual GDP growth – Around 7%.
    3) Per Capita Income – $430 to $1,000.
    4) Foreign Exchange Reserves – $0.5 billion to $16.5 billion.
    5) Revenue generation – Rs 308 billion to Rs 1 trillion.
    6) Debt to GDP ratio – 102% to 53%.
    7) Exports – $7.8 billion to $17.5 billion.
    8) Remittances – $1 billion to $6.4 billion.
    9) Foreign Direct Investments – $400 million to $8.4 billion.
    10) Karachi Stock Exchange Index – 900 to 16500 points
    11) Annual development budget – Rs 90 billion to Rs 520 billion
    12) Poverty reduction – 34% to 17%.
    13) Dollar maintained at Rs 60.
    14) Declared one of the Next – 11 countries of the world.
    b. Communication Infrastructure
    1) Roads
     Coastal Highway Karachi – Gwadar 700KMs.
     (M1) Peshawar to Islamabad Motorway.
     (M3) Pindi Bhattian to Faisalabad Motorway.
     (M4) Faisalabad to Multan Motorway (Launched).
     National Highway (N5) dualised Karachi to Peshawar.
     Quetta – Zhob – D I Khan road.
     Quetta – Loralai – D G Khan Road.
     Gwadar – Turbat – Rato Dero road (Launched)
     Chitral linking with Gilgit over Shandur Pass.
     Gilgit linked with Skardu via Astore – Chillum – Deosai Plains.
     Lowari Tunnel linking KPK to Chitral.
     Kaghan Valley linked with KKH at Chilas over Babusar Pass.
     Kohat Tunnel.
     Lahore – Sialkot Road.
     Lahore – Faisalabad Road.
     Karachi – Lyari Expressway.
     Karachi Northern Bypass
     Lahore Ring Road.
    2) Port. Strategically significant Gwadar Port developed with Chinese assistance.
    3) Airports.
     Lahore Airport completed.
     New Islamabad Airport started.
     New Sambrial (Sialkot) Airport.
     Multan Airport expanded.
     Gwadar Airport developed.
     Quetta Airport expanded.
    4) Railways.
     Dual railway line project from Peshawar to Karachi launched.
     Over 50 locomotives, innumerable cargo bogies included in the railway fleet.
     About 12 new trains started to ease travel for the common man.
     All Railway stations improved in cleanliness and facilities.
    c. Agriculture
    1) Irrigation Projects
     Diamer Bhasha Dam launched. 5 maf water and 4000 MW electricity.
    Mangla Dam raised by 30 feet increasing 2.9 maf water storage capacity and 100MW electricity.
     New Mirani Dam for Balochistan.
     New Subukzai Dam for Balochistan.
     New Gomal Zam Dam for KPK.
     Kachi Canal from Taunsa to Dera Bugti and Jhal Magsi (Balochistan) over 500Kms to irrigate 713000 acres of barren cotton producing land.
     Thal Canal for Punjab to irrigate 20 lac acres of barren land.
     Rainee Canal for Sind.
     Brick lining of all the 86000 water channels in all provinces of Pakistan at a cost of Rs 66 billion.
     Overal brought 3 million acres of barren land under cultivation.
    2) Drain. Right Bank Outfall Drain (RBOD) constructed through Sind taking all the effluent water of Punjab and Balochistan to the sea saving Indus River and Manchar Lake (Sind) from pollution
    3) Dairy. Introduced white revolution in Pakistan.
     Introduced unique milk collection and chillers milk storage system in rural areas.
     Brought world renowned Nestle to spearhead white revolution in Pakistan. They opened their biggest milk plant in the world at Kabirwala in Punjab.
     Initiated artificial insemination and Embryo Transfer Technology for genetic improvement of cows for increasing yield of milk.
    4) Agriculture Products.
     Increased wheat production from 14 million tons to 22 million tons.
     Increased cotton production from 9 million bales to 13 million bales.
     Introduced rotational loan system through banks for poor farmers.
     Increased loan facility for farmers from Rs 35 billion through ZTBL only, to Rs 160 billion from all other private banks.
    d. Energy. Overall 2900 MW electricity added to national generation capacity.
    1) Ghazi Barotha hydro electricity project – 1600MWs.
    2) Chashma – II nuclear electricity plant – 300MWs.
    3) Over 6 thermal electricity plants
    4) Neelum – Jhelum hydro electricity project initiated – 1800 MWs.
    5) Satpara Power project, Skardu
    6) Naltar power project, Gilgit
    7) Launched Alternate Energy Project – Wind Farm in Sindh
    e. Telecommunication. Brought telecom revolution in Pakistan.
    1) Increased mobile telephones from 6 lacs in 2000 to over 7 crores in 2006.
    2) Increased teledensity from 2.9% to over 70%.
    3) Created millions of jobs in telecom sector.
    f. Information Technology. IT revolution introduced.
    1) Internet connectivity increased from 40 cities to 2000 towns of Pakistan.
    2) Fiber optics connectivity increased from 30 cities to over 1500 towns of Pakistan.
    3) 2 megabytes band width cost reduced from $86,000 to $3,000.
    g. Industry.
    1) Focus on SMEs for increasing job creation and spreading wealth.
    2) Core strategy articulated for diversification of products and market.
    3) Major industrial parks opened at Sundar (Lahore), M3 (Faisalabad) and Landhi (Karachi).
    4) Marble city opened at Hub in Balochistan. Modern technology introduced for mining, cutting and polishing of marble.
    5) Auto part industry given a boost as a new export oriented industry.
    6) Industrial growth in double figures throughout the 9 years.
    h. Culture and Heritage.
    1) Quaid e Azam Mausoleum completed to its true grandeur in Karachi.
    2) World standard Cultural Heritage Museum opened in Islamabad.
    3) World standard National Art Gallery opened in Islamabad.
    4) A grand national monument made at Shakar Parian, Islamabad
    5) National Academy of Performing Arts (NAPA) opened in Karachi.
    6) A Yadgar monument started at Walton, Lahore in memory of the Quaids’ address to the hundreds of thousands of refugees migrating from India in 1947.
    i. Democracy.
    1) Local government system launched to empower the people through third tier of government..
    2) Political empowerment of women done through giving them reserved seats at all tiers of government.
    3) Political empowerment of minorities done through giving them Joint Electorate.
    4) Media given independence through liberalization and privatization.
    j. Women Rights.
    1) Political empowerment.
    2) Economic empowerment.
    3) Amending discriminatory laws.
    4. Welfare/Wellbeing of people.
    a. Poverty Alleviation. Poverty halved from 34% to 17%.
    b. Job Creation. Millions of jobs created in building and construction, telecom and IT sectors.
    c. Education.
    1) Literacy level improved from 48% to 58%.
    2) National Commission on Human Development (NCHD) opened, who in turn opened 1 lac adult literacy and primary level feeder schools for universalising education.
    3) National Vocational and Technical Education Commission (NAVTEC), opened for imparting mass vocational and technical education/shill development.
    4) Army opened about 3 vocational training centers for skill development in youth.
    5) Higher Education Commission (HEC) created to oversee university education. Their annual allocation increased from Rs 500 million to Rs 28 billion.
    6) PhD program in engineering and High Technology launched. Annual PhD output increased from 40 to 800. Overall 3800 students sent aboard for PhD, 300 completed. 3500 doing PhD in Pakistan, 340 completed.
    7) No of universities in Pakistan increased from 48 to 130.
    8) 6 universities opened in Balochistan.
    9) 7 Cadet Colleges opened in Balochistan.
    10) 1 University opened in Gilgit.
    11) 1 cadet college opened in Skardu.
    d. Health. Focus on primary and secondary heath care.
    1) BHUs and RHCs activated with Doctors and medicines in the whole of Punjab.
    2) District hospitals made fully functional with specialists and required equipment.
    e. Price Control – Essential Items.
    1) Atta –Rs 16 per Kg. Now it is Rs 36 per kg.
    2) Naan – Rs. 2. Now it is Rs. 7.
    3) Cooking oil – Rs. 180 per liter. Now it is Rs. 264 per liter.
    4) Dal channa – Rs. 39 per kg. Now it is Rs. 115 per kg.
    5) Sugar – Rs. 30 per kg. Now it is Rs. 75 per kg.
    6) Tea – Rs. 152 per kg. Now it is Rs. 330 per kg.
    7) Milk – Rs. 45 per liter. Now it is Rs. 90 per liter
    8) Yogurt – Rs. 49 per kg. Now it is Rs. 100 per kg
    9) Vegetable – Rs. 25 per kg on the average. Now it is Rs. 65 per kg
    10) Mutton – Rs. 265 per kg. Now it is Rs. 520 per kg
    11) Urea – Rs. 850 per bag. Now it is Rs. 2,600 per bag
    12) DAP – Rs 2,200 per bag. Now it is Rs. 4,500 per bag

    Posted in Pervaiz Musharraf Golden Era, Unconditional Love for Motherland | Leave a comment
    Kashmir Dispute might be resolved

    Image | Posted on February 5, 2013
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    Posted in Pervaiz Musharraf Golden Era | Leave a comment
    Poverty reduced to half in Musharraf’s regime: WB report

    Posted on August 13, 2010
    Saturday, August 07, 2010
    By Mehtab Haider
    ISLAMABAD: A World Bank survey has revealed that poverty in Pakistan was reduced by 50 percent on consumption-led growth of the economy under the rule of the former president, Pervez Musharraf.
    “The percentage of the people living below the poverty line in Pakistan fell from 34.5 percent in 2001/02 to 17.2 percent in 2007/08,” World Bank said in its Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) paper, based on a survey conducted in fiscal year 2007/08. The bank is going to provide $6 billion to Pakistan on the basis of CPS findings.
    According to Planning Commission officials, the PPP-led government asked the commission to conceal the results of the survey because the poverty started rising after the Musharraf’s regime.
    According to the WB survey, poverty in urban areas fell from 22.7 percent in 2001/02 to 10.1 percent in 2007/08. In rural areas, it declined from 39.3 percent in 2001 to 20.6 percent in 2007/08, it said.
    “This progress was a result of growth in real per adult consumption expenditure and declining inequality from 2005/06 to 2007/08,” the report said.
    Key human development indicators of educational attainment, health outcomes and unemployment rates also corroborated these figures, the officials said.
    The report showed that the pace of poverty reduction varied across provinces. Poverty in Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa steadily declined from 1998/99 onwards. “In Sindh and Balochistan, it recorded sharp rises in 2001/02 and 2005/06, possibly owing to weak agriculture performance in those years,” the report said.
    The reduction in poverty in KP is particularly noteworthy as officials believe that it was facilitated by higher remittances through both foreign and domestic channels. “The large volatility in poverty suggests that a substantial portion of Pakistan’s population is vulnerable, living close to the poverty line, and could fall into poverty as a result of shocks,” the report said.
    The overlap between vulnerable and poor households is low as about 60 percent of the highly vulnerable population does not belong to the poorest 20 percent. This means that a significant share of the non-poor population is as vulnerable as poor households, it said.
    The WB report conceded that the gains in poverty reduction may have been partly reversed in the wake of the recent economic crisis.
    “Food and fuel prices rose by 23.7 and 18.4 percent, respectively in the review period, resulting in a 21 percent reduction in the purchasing power,” it said.
    The 2007/08 household survey results also suggest that poverty started rising towards the end of the fiscal year.
    Officials said that the impact of the recent economic downturn on poverty levels in the country will only be known when the next household survey is conducted.
    The Task Force on Food Security estimated that poverty headcount increased to 33.8 percent in 2007/08 and 36.1 percent in 2008/09. This means that about 62 million people were below the poverty line in 2008/09.
    Data suggests that between 2005 and 2009, over 12 to 14 million people may have been added to the ranks of the poor in Pakistan. This would translate into an increase in poverty from 22.3 percent of the population in 2005/06 to between 30-35 percent in 2008/09,” the report added.

    Posted in Pervaiz Musharraf Golden Era, Unconditional Love for Motherland | Leave a comment
    چترال: پرویز مشرف کا حامی نظر آیا

    Posted on May 31, 2009
    بازار میں لوگوں سے بات کی تو ایسا لگا کہ چترال پاکستان کا واحد علاقہ ہے جہاں سابق صدر پرویز مشرف آج بھی دیگر سیاسی رہنماؤں سے زیادہ مقبول ہیں۔ ہوٹل کے بیرے اور مینیجر سے لے کر عام دوکاندار اور پڑھے لکھے لوگوں تک جس سے بھی بات ہوئی وہ پرویز مشرف کا حامی نظر آیا۔
    ایڈووکیٹ عبدالولی نے اس کی ایک بڑی وجہ لواری سرنگ کا منصوبہ بتائی۔’چترال کے لوگ ہر سال موسم سرما میں چھ ماہ تک ملک سے کٹ جاتے ہیں ۔کیونکہ برفباری کی وجہ سے راستے بند ہوجاتے ہیں اور ہم مجبور ہوجاتے ہیں۔‘
    انہوں نے بتایا کہ اربوں روپوں کی لاگت سے پرویز مشرف کے دورِ حکومت میں چترال کو دیر سے زمینی راستے سے ملانے کے لیے تقریباً آٹھ کلومیٹر سے بھی زیادہ پہاڑ کھود کر سرنگ بنائی۔ ان کے مطابق لواری ٹنل پر کوریا کی کمپنی کام کر رہی ہے اور کھدائی مکمل ہونے کے بعد اب صرف اُسے ہوادار بنانے اور چھوٹے موٹے کام باقی ہیں۔
    ’لواری ٹنل چترال کے لوگوں کا صدیوں پرانا خواب تھا جو پرویز مشرف نے پورا کردیا اور یہ منصوبہ ہماری زندگی میں انقلاب لائے گا۔ انہوں نے بتایا کہ پرویز مشرف اگر چترال سے انتخاب لڑیں تو آسانی سے جیت سکتے ہیں۔‘
    چترال میں معلوم ہوا کہ ایک مقامی لکڑ ہارے سے پرویز مشرف کی دوستی ہے۔ احمد خان نامی اس شخص سے ملاقات ہوئی تو انہوں نے پرویز مشرف سے اپنے عشق کی داستان سناتے ہوئے بتایا کہ ان کی تاحال پرویز مشرف سے چار ملاقاتیں ہوچکی ہیں۔ انہوں نے اپنی ملاقاتوں کی تصویریں بھی دکھائیں۔
    احمد خان نے بتایا کہ انہیں پرویز مشرف ایک سچے، کھرے اور بہادر انسان لگتے ہیں۔ جب پرویز مشرف پر حملہ ہوا تو وہ بہت روئے اور جب معلوم ہوا کہ وہ بچ گئے ہیں تو انہوں نے چترال شہر کے بازار میں ہر آنے جانے والے شخص کو مٹھائی کھلائی۔ ’میں غریب آدمی ہوں لکڑیاں بیچ کر پیٹ پالتا ہوں لیکن اُس دن میں نے ہزاروں روپے خرچ کردیے۔‘
    چوالیس سالہ احمد خان بتاتے ہیں کہ پرویز مشرف نے لواری سرنگ بنا کر چترالی عوام کو خرید لیا ہے اور چترالی اپنے محسن کو کبھی نہیں بھولتے۔ انہوں نے بتایا کہ ’پرویز مشرف نے جب ریفرنڈم کرایا تو میں نے اپنے گھر میں پولنگ سٹیشن بنایا۔ میرے دو قریبی عزیزوں نے پرویز مشرف کے خلاف ووٹ دیے اور میں آج تک ان سے بات نہیں کرتا۔‘
    احمد خان نے بتایا کہ مرحوم ذوالفقار علی بھٹو نے بھی لواری سرنگ بنانے کا اعلان کیا تھا لیکن انہیں پھر موقع نہیں مل پایا۔ ان کے بقول بعد میں دو بار پیپلز پارٹی اقتدار میں رہی لیکن اس منصوبے پر کام شروع نہیں کیا۔
    چترال شہر میں احمد خان ’پرویز مشرف کے متوالے‘ کے طور پر مشہور ہیں۔ انہوں نے بتایا کہ پرویز مشرف کی جانب سے سیاست میں آنے کے فیصلے پر وہ بہت خوش ہیں اور اگر وہ چترال سے قومی اسمبلی کا انتخاب لڑیں تو وہ اتنے ووٹ لیں گے کہ ان کے مخالفین کی ضمانتیں ضبط ہوجائیں گی۔
    ’مجھے پورا یقین ہے کہ آئندہ ملاقات میں، ان سے اسرار کروں گا کہ وہ چترال سے آئندہ انتخاب لڑیں۔انہیں خرچہ بھی نہیں کرنا پڑے گا اور چترال کے لوگ خود ان کی انتخابی مہم چلائیں گے۔‘
    احمد خان کا شکریہ ادا کیا اور ان سے اجازت لے کر واپس اسلام آباد کے لیے چترال کے ہوائی اڈے پہنچے۔ چترال کا ہوائی اڈہ دریائے چترال کے کنارے پر تنگ وادی میں واقع ہے۔ چترال کی خوبصورتی میں اس وقت مزید اضافہ ہوجاتا ہے جب فضا سے اس کا منظر دیکھیں۔
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/urdu/pakistan/2...iece_zee.shtml

    Posted in Pervaiz Musharraf Golden Era | 3 Comments
    Mujhay wo din Yad atay hain

    Posted on March 31, 2009
    Sir Musharraf Era
    Musharraf Era: Ushers in Multi-Nationals Corporations & booms Private sector Business
    Mirza Rohail Baig
    An effective and successful manager manages his company with whatever resources he/she has, and manages to gear it towards an unprecedented growth and prosperity, utilizing all internal and external factors. Musharraf has proven himself to be the manager for Pakistan!
    Multi-National Corporations (MNC’s) provide excellent job opportunities, bringing in the required capital, latest technology, developed human resources, management, quality and safety standards.
    1. Dubai Ports World announced on 1 June 2006 that it will spend $10 billion to develop real estate, infrastructure and transport in Pakistan.
    2. Emaar Properties announced on 31st May 2006 three real estates developments in the cities of Islamabad and Karachi. The projects, with a total investment of $2.4 billion, will include developing commercial and residential property.
    3. Emaar Properties also signed an unprecedented $43 billion deal to develop two Island resorts – Bundal Island and Buddo Island – over the decade.
    4. International Petroleum Investment Co., owned by the government of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates, has received approval from Pakistan’s government to build a $5 billion Oil refinery at Hub in Baluchistan. The refinery, which will be Pakistan’s biggest, will have the capacity to process 300,000 barrels of oil a day.
    5. 2006: The government is all set to establish an ‘Oil city’ with an investment of $40 billion at Gwadar Port to make it the biggest crude and refined oil storage base in the region. The government has allotted 12,500 acres of land in Gwadar. The Chinese Petroleum Chamber would come up with $12.5 billion investment plan for the project.
    6. Canadian Oil & Gas Company signed a $200 million project with Pakistan that would generate 50,000 direct jobs in Sindh. It will explore, develop, produce and commercialize Coal Bed Methane (CBM) in Pakistan up-to 70,000 barrels a day for about 20 years.
    7. July 2006: The Government awarded three blocks in the country’s offshore Indus Delta to British Petroleum Pakistan. BP Pakistan (formerly known as Union Texas Pakistan) will explore gas blocks U, V and W, covering an area of 21,000 square km, for oil and gas reserves.
    8. Dubai’s foreign investment in Pakistan’s capital markets recorded significant growth in 2006 and more than doubled to Dh1.278 billion ($351.5 million) by June 30th of this year. It stood at Dh554.9 million last year.
    9. The KESC has awarded the contract for Phase-I of the 220 MW Power plant to METKA, EPC contractor, a Greek Company of international repute, whereas Phase-II for 565 MW is under process, it has been reliably learnt. The EPC cost of the project is around $186 million including approximately 11 million dollars for chiller equipment.
    10. Sept 26: Am Power Company, a Kuwait-based company, intends to build 225MW combined cycle Power project located at the Sundar Industrial Estate at an estimated cost of $200 million.
    11. The credit of building the Chashma-2 goes to the Musharraf Government. PM Shaukat Aziz launched work on the billion dollars 325-megawatt plant in Chashma, which is the second to be built at the site with Chinese help. The cost of Chashma-2 is around Rs 51 billion, which also includes Rs20.1 billion foreign exchange component.
    12. In the much-awaited, but positive development, WAPDA has finalized a Chinese consortium, China Gezhouba (group) Co Ltd China and CMEC, China (CGGC-CMEC), for the construction of strategically the most important project: 969 MW Neelum-Jhelum Hydropower. Cost of Construction is above $1.8 billion13. French Renault is establishing a 40-million-euro assembling plant of Renault Logan cars in the country, with the production capacity of 15,000 automobiles per year. This project would attract 40 million euros’ investment and create 600 job opportunities.
    14. The automobile industry in Pakistan has made remarkable progress during the last few years. Despite low indigenous base, it has attracted almost Rs100 billion investments. Rs 52 billion has come in direct manufacturing and Rs 35 billon in ancillary industry.
    15. Pakistan Suzuki, a leading automobile company, has achieved exports worth $957 million during the last financial year 2005-06, which has been considered by the government as an encouraging sign.
    16. The Motorcycle industry in the country is progressing as well since the manufacturing of motorcycles has touched the Rs.0.7 million mark in financial year 2005-06. Crankcase is manufactured mainly by only two companies but their production capacity is approx 6,000 sets per month.
    17. Honda Atlas Cars held a Manufacturing Capacity Expansion ceremony of its auto plant. HACPL will increase annual production capacity will be doubled from the current 25,000 units to 50,000 units by the end of 2006. Total investment around Rs1.67 billion.
    18. A Manchester (UK) firm called Drillcorer has just moved production of its drills to Pakistan. The result is that it can now sell them for Ł15,000 rather than the Ł65,000 it would have had to charge if they were produced in Britain 19. 2005: Brunei government is financing the US$2.6 million training “Institute for Pakistan Foreign Service”. Under construction.
    20. WASHINGTON: Pakistan ranked first among all developing world recipients in the value of Arms transfer agreements in 2006, concluding $5.1 billion in such agreements.
    21. 2-12-07: Cement sales by Pakistani manufacturers to local and foreign buyers is expected to have reached 11.848 million tonnes during the first five months (July-November). Exports are expected to grow by 155% year-on-year to 2.531 million tonnes for the five-month period.
    22. Pakistan’s Financial Sector is witnessing robust growth in Islamic banking. Two fully-fledged Islamic banks — one local and one foreign-based — have opened 23 branches recently. Bank Islami will be the 3rd Bank. The 4th Dubai Islamic Bank would open around 70 branches. Saudi Arabia would open the 5th Islamic Bank soon.
    23. Takaful Pakistan Limited would soon commence operational activities in the country with an initial paid-up capital of Rs200 million and an authorized capital of Rs 300 million. Takaful is a system of Islamic insurance.
    24. 14-6-07: Standard Chartered Bank of Pakistan (SCBP) has made a mega investment of Rs 30 billion to grow in a significant way in Pakistan.
    25. Pakistan’s leading Edible Oil buyers are establishing 4 new refineries, officials in the industry said. Most of the refineries will be operational by the end of 2007 and they will double Pakistan’s CPO refining capacity of 2,025 tonnes per day. 26. 26-1-07: Canadian Wireless systems developer TenXc Wireless Inc. is partnering with Pakistani company Coherent Designs Pvt. to establish a joint development centre for wireless products in Pakistan’s capital. Global WiMAX market was worth $1.1 billion in 2006 and is expected to grow to $3.3 billion by 2009.
    27. The Minister inaugurated ceremony of a software technology park. The high-tech IT park has been set up at Rawalpindi by a leading US IT company MTBC to start its business operations in Pakistan.
    28. Capital Investment Overseas, an Abu Dhabi based company, will build a five-star hotel in Lahore, with an estimated investment of Rs20 billion (Dh1.25 billion). The construction of the 602 room hotel will be completed by the year 2011.
    29. Saudi-Kuwaiti joint venture, Mid Roc Tussonia Ltd, will invest $3 billion to $4 billion in the next seven years in power generation, refining and real estate sectors in Pakistan. This was stated by the president of the Mid Roc Group, Sheikh Humoud Al-Sabah, at the launching of the joint venture here. Sabah said that his company would set up two wind power generation plants at Mirpur Sakro at a cost of $200 million. 2,500 acres of land has been acquired for this purpose. They will also establish a lube-based oil refinery at Port Qasim, over 500 acres of land, at a cost of $1.5 billion.
    30. Tata Motors, India’s largest automobile firm, announced its entry in Pakistan through its subsidiary, Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Co, with the commissioning of a new truck and bus assembly unit in Karachi. The plant has a capacity to produce 3,000 vehicles.

    Posted in Pervaiz Musharraf Golden Era, Unconditional Love for Motherland | 2 Comments
    Missing you already

    Posted on March 20, 2009
    Fatima Bhutto (http://pakistankakhudahafiz.wordpress.com)
    Pakistan has become a very unusual place. In Lahore, the heart of Pakistani cricket, the Sri Lankan cricket team was attacked in broad daylight by masked gunmen carrying guns and rocket launchers, because you never know when a rocket launcher will come in handy during an urban attack. The government had been warned of a potential terror threat but, true to form, ignored it. After killing eight people, mostly policemen, and wounding several others including the foreign cricketers, the gunmen ambled leisurely away. They were caught on CCTV camera calmly mounting their motorcycles and surveying the scene before deciding they had other places to be.
    Immediately the cacophony of ludicrous claims hit the media. “The attack is to ruin our [the ruling party’s] image,” bellowed Raja Riaz, a Pakistan People’s Party hack. Er, no. “The motive was to damage the state of Pakistan and end cricket here,” said Imran Khan, head of the Tehreek-e-Insaf party. Er, no. The Pakistan cricket team are perfectly capable of ruining the state of cricket in the country on their own; masked gunmen are not required, thank you very much. Incidentally, on Monday night local police attacked the offices of Khan’s party brandishing Kalashnikovs and pistols. It’s probably not a coincidence that Khan has been openly critical of the Zardari government.
    It’s fear. That’s what it is. It’s the state of a nation at war with itself. When vigilantes armed with sophisticated weaponry can attack a team of cricket guests (and there are no guests more esteemed in south Asia) in the middle of the afternoon, what they’re telling you is that no one is above the reach of the terror that has taken over Pakistan. It’s startling how adept this government has been at losing control of law and order, leasing out Pakistan’s stability for an increased role in the war on terror in preparation for the troop surge in Afghanistan, and generally running the country to rot.
    “Droned” is a verb we use now in Pakistan. It turns out, interestingly enough, that those US predator drones that have been killing Pakistani citizens almost weekly have been taking off from and landing within our own country. Secret airbases in Balochistan – what did we ever do before Google Earth?
    The PPP-led government, hailed as being “democratic”, capitulated to the Pakistan Taliban’s demands for sharia law in the Swat Valley in February. There was no vote, no referendum, nothing. The government, tired of fighting those pesky militants who’ve been burning down Sufi shrines and local girls’ schools, just declared that a part of the country would be ruled no longer by federal law, but by a myopically interpreted and Taliban-approved “Islamic” code. And verily it shall be.
    We’ve just had senate “elections”. Of course, there are no actual elections involved: the ruling party puts forward winners and they end up in parliament. On Monday, in a shock move, President Asif Ali Zardari’s former attorney, who defended the erstwhile criminal on corruption and murder charges, was made chairman of the senate. What a gas!
    Meanwhile, with Delhi still beating war drums over the November Mumbai attacks, our former dictator/president Pervez Musharraf travelled to India recently, and there he warned our neighbours of an all-out war should they strike Pakistan. He also let us know that he is ready to return to the call of political duty. Outsiders might be confused at this change in the situation – what’s he doing there? Didn’t he resign in August? Here’s the beauty of it all: Musharraf’s re-emergence has many middle-class Pakistanis excited and hopeful. Is he back?! A series of op-eds in a local English newspaper (not highly censored because no one reads them) was titled “Why I miss Musharraf”. When a dictator tickles your fancy, you know something has gone very, very wrong.
    So, the mood in Pakistan is one of confusion. How did we come to this? How do we get out?
    On the eve of spring, it is the same problems that blight the country’s poor – there is no electricity, there is no potable water, and food inflation continues to rise. The newspapers warned us this week that “load shedding” in the summer will be some 15 hours long, which is not that bad considering the fact that we’re sitting in darkness for 12 hours a day now. Pakistan has long missed its millennium target goals of eradicating polio, largely because we can’t keep the electricity going long enough for the vaccines to be properly refrigerated, so they keep going bad. And we’re a nuclear country, a grossly corrupt one at that.
    The press censorship continues unabated with future threats of an absolute blackout on any criticisms of the government safely enclosed within the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act that the parliament is currently sitting on. The bill, which imposes jail sentences from three months (for having an email account not registered in your real name) to the death penalty, and criminalises the acts of “spoofing”, “spamming” and “character assassinating”, will apply to the width and breadth of the country and to any person, regardless of nationality or citizenship. It will crack down on all objectionable – the definition of what is objectionable is typically vague – messages sent via, but not limited to, “electrical, digital, analogue, magnetic, optical, biochemical, electrochemical, electromechanical, electromagnetic, radio electric, and wireless technology”. So any subversive content found on cell phones, computers, or toasters will soon be illegal. Your head should be spinning by now.
    Pakistan is in a dire situation. Religious extremism, violence and a faltering economy have made the state of affairs here decidedly grim. Joe Biden and John Kerry see American dollars as the only way of helping Pakistan stave off extremism; but Yankee aid donations and senatorial money will not help us now. It is estimated that President Zardari and his late wife, Benazir Bhutto, stole between $2bn and $3bn from the country’s treasury during their two previous stints in power. Now Zardari has claimed his personal wealth to be somewhere in the ballpark of $1.8bn. Nawaz Sharif, leading coalition partner and head of the Pakistan Muslim League, declared his fortune to be not as grand, at only $1.4bn. You do the maths.

    Posted in Pervaiz Musharraf Golden Era | Leave a comment
    Economic way forward for Pakistan

    Posted on March 20, 2009
    Written By: Honorable Shaukat Aziz, ex-Prime Minister of Pakistan
    source : economicpakistan.wordpress.com
    2009: When I was asked to write a piece on the economic way forward, I hesitated at first because I felt that with a new government in place it is better that we leave the way forward to the new economic managers, rather than play the role of back seat drivers and provide unsolicited advice. But the mountain of criticism of the previous government policies from all sorts of arm chair critics, ranging from retired bureaucrats and economists of the cold war era, who still believe in the supremacy of state management of the economy and for whom Venezuela and Bolivia are the new role models, to Islamists who feel that the entire western global economic system is doomed and we need to chalk out a new paradigm – convinced me that perhaps the time had come to analyze the past and set the record straight, assess the current situation and contribute to the debate on the way forward.
    Now that we have the political parties of the nineties back in power it can be instructive to examine a few economic indicators of the nineties with the past eight years and draw inferences. Since the economic growth numbers have been challenged by the critics. I will use numbers that are not subject to disagreement. So for example, if the GDP growth numbers are being challenged, than other growth indicators that the public can understand can show the reality. The official GDP growth from around US $ 65 billion in 1999-2000 to US$ 165 billion in 2007-08 (a factor of 2.5 times) is challenged as being fudged, but growth of credit to the private sector over the same time period from Rs 1 trillion to Rs 2.5 trillion, again a factor of 2.5 times, cannot be challenged.
    The data shows that while electricity consumption grew by 1300 Gwh per year in the decade of the nineties it grew by 3750 Gwh per year from 2000 to 2008 a factor of 2.8 times. Gas consumption grew by 20 billion cft per year in the nineties compared with 80 billion cft per year from 2000 to 2007 a factor of four times. The revenue collection by FBR increased from Rs 300 billion in 1999 to over one trillion in 2008. Foreign investment that averaged around $ 500 million per year in the nineties touched over $ 8 billion in 2008 alone. Remittances that were around one billion in 1999 have crossed six billion in 2008.
    Development spending that was US$ 1.5 billion in 1999 touched $7.5 billion in 2007. Exports that were $7.5 billion in 1999 reached $18 billion in 2007. Foreign exchange reserves that were around a billion dollars in 1999 reached over 16 billion in 2007. Stock market index that was around 1300 in 1999 touched its highest level of 15700 in April 2008 a factor of 12 times that placed the KSE as one of the best performing stock markets of the world. The exchange rate showed remarkable stability over the past eight years. Credit rating improved from selective default in 1999 to B+ and B1 by 2007.
    Since the February elections, and the advent of the new government economic indicators have sharply deteriorated. The Currency has fallen by 25 percent against the Dollar, the stock market index has fallen by 6700 points from its peak in April leading to an asset value loss of 43 percent amounting to loss of market capitalization of around US $ 40 billion; the largest loss in the history of Pakistan. This loss of confidence in the economy of Pakistan has been unprecedented. We can trace the loss of confidence by the foreign investor by examining the spread on the US dollar global bonds that we issued in May 2007. These bonds were issued at the start of the lawyers movement and its associated turmoil. The bond was a huge success with over subscription; of seven times amounting to $ 3.5 billion while we were seeking only $500 million. The spread was 180 basis points above US government ten year securities. As the lawyers movement continued to gain strength in mid 2007, the spread on the bonds jumped to 300 basis points in July and 400 basis points by November when the emergency was imposed.
    In December when BB was assassinated the spread jumped to 600 basis points. However, after the elections, the investor community welcomed the peaceful transition by pushing the spread down to 500 points. The stock market also reacted favorably and reached its highest point of 15700 in our history in April, 2008. Since then our chaotic politics and lack of focus on economic issues has led to the collapse of the stock market to 9000 points and the spread has jumped to almost a 1000 points. So what events produced these results, between April and now.
    In the previous government, we had been highly successful in crafting a very positive brand image of Pakistan as one of the fastest growing emerging economies in Asia. After our exit from the IMF program and successful reforms, investors favorably compared Pakistan to India, China and Vietnam. Every time we did a road show, we were highly successful in our endeavors whether it was the OGDC flotation or UBL GDR or Euro bonds or large privatizations, investors flocked to our offerings. We were a success story in the international financial markets and most of our issues became benchmark issues.
    Unfortunately, this Government has not been able to maintain Pakistan Brand rather it has eroded considerably. In this erosion the first stone was foolishly cast by our erstwhile finance minister Mr. Ishaq Dar who displayed incredible irresponsibility and immaturity in lambasting the Pakistani economy in front of the global media; at a time when the global investment community was looking towards the new government for its economic vision and future strategy the new finance minister harangued them on how bad the Pakistan economy was. In spite of this onslaught, the rating agencies maintained their ratings until as in their words the new government comes up with its economic game plan. The new government was at this time caught up in utter confusion on the economic direction of the country with rapid changes in the finance setup and revolving finance ministers.
    This lack of focus was disastrous for us as against this back ground our financing plan included a number of financial market transactions totaling around $ 4 billion that were ready for the road shows. These included the National Bank, Habib Bank, and KAPCO. The exchangeable bond issue of OGDC, and the strategic sale of PSO shares along with management control. With the stock market at an all time high the transactions would have been a great success and the road shows would have generated tremendous good will for the new government and would have highlighted the smooth transition that happened in Pakistan. It would have been a great opportunity to showcase Pakistan in front of the international investment community. Instead, in an inexplicable move the Government cancelled all the transactions. Pakistan directly lost desperately needed inflows of $ 4 billion and with the rising oil import bill, this loss placed a huge pressure on the reserves and the currency. Indirectly the loss was probably twice as much as foreign investors withdrew to the sidelines and domestic investors moved their investments overseas. It might be mentioned that while the government failed to take advantage of the window of opportunity, The MCB bank taking advantage of the great valuations on the stock market in April 2008 privately placed some 20% of their equity with a Malaysian bank for a cool sum of $ 850 million.
    If the Government had acted similarly, it could have generated sufficient flows to prevent the meltdown which ensued. Reserves drawdown would have been avoided, the spread on our international bonds would have narrowed down to May 2007 levels, borrowing from the State Bank would have been halved and the government would have had a stable environment for tackling the oil import bill and food inflation. Our current predicament is clearly a creation of our current economic miss-management. A few heads should have rolled because of this incredible lapse.
    What could have been done in April/May 2008 with the market at 15700 points cannot be done in September/ October 2008 with the market at 9100 points. The international markets are closed to us. We have to wait until our markets get back to their historical levels and investor confidence is restored. How will this be achieved? The biggest challenge for President Zardari is to restore the eroded Pakistan Brand; back to its original luster and in the process revive the investment flows that can sustain our growth going forward.
    First, while we should be on the right side of the world in the war on terror, the world should seriously help us in our endeavor to build a better economic & future for our people. The new president has to focus on the economic issues facing the country. His international trips to China, Saudi Arabia, Gulf, USA, UK, should promote Pakistan economic interests as a pivotal objective. He should not only promote government to government economic cooperation but also promote private sector to private sector interaction with these countries. We need strong, immediate and implement able commitments of around $5 billion balance of payment support from these countries. In addition, their leadership at the highest levels should support international moves to promote our economic growth and stability. Better and preferential access to EU and USA markets, greater quotas for labor and deferred payments for oil in Saudi Arabia and Gulf region. A full calendar of investment conferences and single country exhibitions need to be carried out under the direction of the president. The promotion of exports and investments has to be the major focus and objective of the President. If we can generate foreign investments greater than last year level of $ 8 billion and export growth is revived to healthy double digit levels we would start coming out of the current malaise.
    Second, it is clear that Pakistan growing trade and current account deficit is being driven by ever escalating oil prices. With the oil bill crossing $12 billion a year there is no option other than passing the full prices to the consumers and eliminate the burden on the budget. This will also help in promoting conservation and improving energy efficiency. Unfortunately, the transition to a new government took place at a time of unprecedented increase in global fuel prices.
    For example at the time of elections, oil prices were around $80 a bbl whereas by July 2008 it had reached $140 a bbl. While we had planned to limit the fiscal deficit to be under 6 percent and largely financing it from non state bank sources, including commercial bank borrowing and non debt sources. The new government ended up with a much higher deficit level and financed it totally from the state bank. We have now reached a stage where the issue is no longer energy availability rather it is energy affordability. We have almost 20000 MW of power generation capacity but we are only using 12000 MW because the Furnace oil used for thermal generation has become extremely expensive and beyond the ability of Pepco to pay for. As a result, available capacity is not being used leading to load shedding.
    The exorbitant power price increase can only be avoided in the short run if transmission and distribution losses are dramatically curtailed and in the medium term we substitute imported fuel with domestic sources. Thermal power based on imported oil costs around Rs 16 per unit (Kwh) whereas hydel power from Kalabagh would cost Rs 2 per unit. The power from Thar coal will cost around Rs 8 per unit. While Kalabagh can be completed in five years, Technical problems with Thar coal can delay its availability indefinitely. If the mega Kalabagh Dam is launched in 2008 it will not only jump start the economy; it will also be seen as President Zardari’s gift of Hydel Power to Pakistan just like PM Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Gift of Nuclear Power to Pakistan thirty five years ago.
    Third, as far as inflation is concerned it will start coming under control as global oil and food prices filter through the economy. Our Inflation index is heavily weighted in favor of food energy and commodity prices. So it is highly sensitive to these prices. Since global energy and food prices are easing the same should be felt in Pakistan in the days to come. Pakistan’s inflation is a supply side and cost push phenomenon and further monetary tightening would not help. Instead, a tighter fiscal policy with a lower deficit target and phasing out of borrowing from the state bank will help. At the same time in this period of great change we should ensure that the poor of the poorest are able to cope with the changes particularly higher food prices and social safety nets are made fool proof so that nobody in Pakistan stays hungry.
    Fourth, for the first time after 2nd world war agriculture commodity prices have moved in favor of the farmers. We have to ensure that we pass on this benefit of higher global prices to our farmers by deregulating agriculture prices. The only other incentive our farmers need is predictable water supply. This can be ensured by building more water reservoirs and better water management so that farmers can move from unpredictable subsistence agriculture to commercial agriculture. Study after study in the sub-continent has shown that large multi-purpose dams are the quickest way out of poverty. With oil prices at $100 per barrel and destined to double over the next decade there is no way, other than developing our full hydel potential quickly to usher in a new green revolution and providing sustainable global advantage to our economy of cheap hydel power.
    Fifth, we should stop cribbing about the Consumer economy. Pakistan is a large country with 160 million people and 100 million under the age of 25. With dependency, ratios going down we can reap a demographic dividend over the next several decades. While these youngster have to be prepared for the work force they are already becoming a huge engine of growth for our markets that are growing at fabulous rates to meet the demands of these Pakistani baby boomers, Just like in Europe and South Korea after the 2nd world war, our baby boomers will be the back bone of our middle class and will determine the growth of our economy over the next 40 years until they start to retire. This gives our businesses an historic opportunity to grow and produce the goods and services the population needs. In an era when world is facing a crisis of aging populations we are blessed with opportunities of a young and dynamic population. In this regard consumer financing which has become a butt of criticism has just scratched the surface.
    In our country, consumer finance is around 5 % of GDP whereas in the developed world it is over 100% of GDP. Consumer financing has a long way to go and along the way it will continue to be one of the engines of growth for us. Any ill founded moves to curtail the consumer economy will hamper the growth of our businesses. We are now going beyond textiles into engineering, electronics, chemicals, food processing, construction materials, real estate and many other sectors based on our domestic markets as these markets continue to expand we will reach economies of scale that will make our producers and the large associated vendor industry competitive on a global scale and the same producers will be the base for diversifying our exports into more sophisticated and fast growing sectors of the world. Ultimately, if our law and order permits and our national psyche adopts rules of globalization, and globalization as our road to prosperity we will become one of the workshops of the world along with India and China.
    Sixth, there are hundreds of infrastructure projects at various stages of implementation including the National trade corridor, Neelum Jhelum hydro power project, KKH upgradation, Urban renewal in Karachi and Lahore, mass transport projects, airports, Baluchistan road network, Gawadar port, industrial parks etc., these projects have to be completed on time and scope. The last government also created an Infrastructure project development facility (IPDF) that needs to be fully utilized so that we can bump up (almost double ) our expenditure on infrastructure particularly hydel projects through public private partnerships.
    Seventh, the FBR has to continue generating revenues for the government to carry out the nation building programs. Last year a target of over 4 trillion rupees was set for FBR within the next ten years, four times the current levels reaching about 16 % of GDP. Along with a target of 4 percent of GDP for education expenditures with 1.5 % allocated to university education. The education strategy was based on providing universal access to primary education, retaining enrollments into secondary education and technical and vocational training and improving standards at the college and university levels. Nine new engineering universities in collaboration with European, Korean and Chinese universities were in the pipeline. Going forward we should focus on quality improvement through a big push forward in teacher training, curriculum development and public private partnerships at the primary and secondary schools level and continued efforts to upgrade the universities and hopefully achieving the setup of the new engineering schools. The national vocational and technical education commission (NAVTEC), has gone through its learning curve, and can now be used to upscale its programs to give technical and vocational training a quantum jump.
    Eighth, in the financial sector we have created a world class banking system with our banks featuring amongst the leaders in Asia. The Quality of our bankers is second to none and can work in any global setting. The challenge is to further increase the reach and competitiveness of the financial sector with Microfinance playing a much greater role. Our microfinance frameworks are the best in the world and a strong base has been established which can grow manifold to bring financial services to the masses. The growth of the financial sector will continue at a sizzling rate as the financial sector expands into consumer and housing finance, rural and agriculture finance and development of debt and bond markets, growth of mutual funds, pension funds and other savings instruments.
    Ninth, in the competitiveness area we must continue to deregulate and privatize the economy to create a vibrant and competitive economy. Second generation reforms in economic management have to be continued. An essential pillar of a private sector led market economy, the Competition Commission has to be given financial independence and allowed to work unhindered. The competitiveness support fund, business support fund, agriculture support fund, Khushal Pakistan fund, smeda etc. have to be used to implement reforms that help the market economy become more productive and competitive from the grass roots level up to the corporate level.
    Finally, Pakistan needs to continue to grow at 7 to 8 percent to create the 3 to 4 million new jobs per year needed to accommodate our youth and create a dent in poverty in our lifetime. We cannot embrace isolationism, jihadism or any other form of global confrontationist movements. Instead, we have to build on our successes, unleash the potential of our people, exploit our competitive advantages, take advantage of global finance, integrate with global markets, and continue building a dynamic market economy with world class infrastructure to achieve our growth objectives. This is the recipe for the future and the way

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    Abdul Sattar Edhi speaks for Sir Pervez Musharraf

    Posted on March 7, 2009
    True human rights activists Abdul Sattar Edhi speaks for the honesty and human loving nature of Sir Pervez Musharraf… Alas, how miserable this nation is that doesnt recognize its heroes…

    Posted in Pervaiz Musharraf Golden Era, Unconditional Love for Motherland | Leave a comment
    Salar e Millat Pervez Musharraf

    Posted on March 7, 2009
    Early Years
    Musharraf was born in Daryaganj in Delhi, India, but moved with his parents to Karachi, Pakistan during the partition of India (1947).
    Family background
    Both of his parents attended college; his mother’s major was English Literature. She worked for the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and retired in 1986. Musharraf’s father, a graduate of the Aligarh University in India, served in the Pakistan foreign service and led a distinguished career. He retired as a Joint Secretary in the Foreign Ministry of Pakistan. Musharraf spent a part of his childhood in Turkey, while his father was a diplomat there, and speaks fluent Turkish.
    Education
    Musharraf attended Karachi’s Saint Patrick’s High School, Karachi finishing high school in 1958, before going on to attend Forman Christian College in Lahore.
    Military training
    In 1961, he joined the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul. A graduate of the Command and Staff College, Quetta, and the National Defense College, Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf also distinguished himself at the Royal College of Defence Studies, United Kingdom. His supervisor, commenting on his performance remarked in his report: “A capable, articulate and extremely personable officer, who made a most valuable impact here. His country is fortunate to have the services of a man of his undeniable quality.”
    Military Career
    He was commissioned in artillery regiment in 1964. He fought the 1965 war with India as a young officer and was awarded Imtiazi Sanad for gallantry. In 1967/68, he was promoted to Captain. He also achieved the Nishan-i-Imtiaz (military) and the Tamgha-i-Basalat. He has also been on the faculty of the Command and Staff College, Quetta and the war wing of the National Defence College, Pakistan. He volunteered to be a commando, and remained in the Special Service Group for seven years.
    He also participated in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 as a Company Commander in the Commando Battalion. He has had the responsibility of commanding artillery regiments and an armored division. On promotion to the rank of Major General on January 15, 1991, he was given the command of an Infantry Division and later of a prestigious Strike Corps as Lieutenant General on October 21, 1995.
    Musharraf has served on various important staff and instructional appointments during his career. He has also been the Director General Military Operations at the GHQ from 1993 to 1995. He rose to the rank of General and was appointed as the Chief of Army Staff, Pakistan on October 7, 1998 when Pakistan’s army chief, General Jehangir Karamat was forced to resign after calling for military representation in a National Security Council of Pakistan. He was given the additional office of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC) on April 9, 1999.
    On September 15, 2004, Musharraf backed down from his commitment to step down as Army Chief, citing circumstances of national necessity that he felt required him to keep both offices.
    The Nawaz Sharif administration
    In 1997, Nawaz Sharif was elected Prime Minister after his party, the Pakistan Muslim League, won the national elections with a large majority. Sharif’s party obtained enough seats in parliament to change the constitution, which he amended to eliminate the formal checks and balances that restrained the Prime Minister’s power. The Prime Minister defeated challenges to his growing power, led by President Farooq Leghari and Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah, both of whom were forced to resign – the Chief Justice did so after the Supreme Court was stormed by Sharif partisans. After military chief Jehangir Karamat proposed the creation of a National Security Council to serve as a forum for interaction between top civilian leaders and the chiefs of the armed services, he too was dismissed by Nawaz Sharif, and Musharraf was appointed in his place.
    Coup d’état
    On 12 October 1999, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif ordered Musharraf’s dismissal and replacement by a family loyalist, ISI director Khwaja Ziauddin. Musharraf, who was out of the country, was returning to Pakistan on a commercial airliner. Senior Army generals refused to accept Musharraf’s dismissal. Sharif ordered the Karachi airport closed to block the landing of the airliner, which then circled the skies over Karachi. In a coup, the generals ousted Sharif’s administration and took over the airport. The plane landed with only a few minutes of fuel to spare, and Musharraf assumed control of the government. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was put under house arrest and later exiled. The existing President of Pakistan, Rafiq Tarar, remained in office until June 2001. Musharraf formally became President on June 20, 2001, just days before his scheduled visit for the Agra Talks with India.
    Supreme Court orders elections. National referendum extends Musharraf’s presidency to 2007.
    On May 12, 2000 the Supreme Court of Pakistan ordered Musharraf to hold general elections by October 12, 2002. This posed a legal problem for Musharraf: after the restoration of democracy, he could be charged with the capital offense of overthrowing the government. For the purpose of defending against such a charge, and to assure the continuity of his presidency, Musharraf exercised his presidential prerogative and held a referendum on April 30, 2002, asking voters to approve an extension of his presidential term to a period ending five years after the October elections. He won the referendum, despite a boycott by anti-Musharraf political parties, which disputed the results and the voter-turnout statistics. At the time, independent polls put Musharraf’s approval rating at 55% to 67%, and political analysts felt that if voter turnout was lower than expected, it had been affected by apathy rather than opposition to Musharraf. However, his opponents refused to accept the results, and stridently denied the legitimacy of his presidency until he was elected as President twenty months later, on January 1, 2004.
    General elections were held in October, 2002 and a pro-Musharraf party, the PML-Q, won a plurality of the seats in the Parliament. However, parties opposed to Musharraf effectively paralyzed the National Assembly for over a year. The deadlock ended in December 2003, when Musharraf made a deal with the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal party. With that party’s support, pro-Musharraf legislators were able to muster the two-thirds supermajority required to pass the Seventeenth Amendment, which retroactively legalized Musharraf’s 1999 coup and many of his subsequent decrees.
    Electoral College victory
    In a vote of confidence on January 1, 2004, Musharraf won 658 out of 1,170 votes in the Electoral College of Pakistan, and according to Article 41(8) of the Constitution of Pakistan, was “deemed to be elected” to the office of President until October 2007.
    Controversy over being both President and military head
    A pro-Musharraf party, the PML-Q, won a plurality in the elections of October 2002, and formed a majority coalition with independents and allies such as the MQM. Nevertheless, the opposition parties effectively deadlocked the National Assembly, refusing to accept Musharraf’s presidency and his Legal Framework Order. In December 2003, as part of a compromise with the main Islamist opposition group, the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, (MMA) General Musharraf said he would step down as Army Chief by January 1, 2005. In return, the MMA agreed to support a constitutional amendment that would retroactively legalize Musharraf’s coup, and restore some formal checks and balances to Pakistan’s system of government.
    In late 2004, however, pro-Musharraf legislators passed a bill allowing Musharraf to keep both offices, and Musharraf announced that he intended to hold on to both.
    Views and perceptions of Musharraf
    General Pervez Musharraf, President and Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, addressing the UN General Assembly on November 10, 2001
    Musharraf is considered a moderate leader by Western governments. Many believe that Musharraf is sincere in his desire to bridge the Islamic and the Western worlds, and has previously spoken strongly against the idea of the inevitability of a ‘clash of civilisations’ between them. Musharraf’s emotional ties to the United States may be conjectured to be significant since at least two close members of his family live there: his brother, a doctor, lives in Chicago, and his son lives in Boston. His son has a Bachelor’s degree in Actuarial Science from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and works for a benefits-consulting firm in Boston. Musharraf’s only other child, a daughter, is a graduate of the National Council of Arts in Lahore and is an architect. Musharraf’s elder brother, who was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford and a Civil Service officer in the Government of Pakistan, and also worked at the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in Rome before retiring.
    Musharraf’s views considered relatively liberal
    Musharraf was raised in a family that is considered liberal by Pakistani standards. Unsequestered and unveiled, the women of the family are and seen and photographed in public. His mother worked for the ILO and was friends with well-known Pakistani liberals. His daughter is an architect.
    Shortly after coming to power, and on numerous occasions afterwards, Musharraf expressed admiration for the secularist reformer of Turkey, Kemal Atatürk, outraging religious anti-secularists in the country.
    Musharraf has been open to making economic reforms and to modernize Pakistan. He is considered to be a modern, British-style officer – liberal views were very common among the officers of the Pakistan army before Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq’s rule, who often trained in the United States.
    Musharraf with United States President George W. Bush
    Since his involvement as a senior officer of Pakistan’s special forces during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Musharraf has had excellent personal relations with several sections of the US security establishment. Following his coup in 1999, US President Bill Clinton called Musharraf to express his concern [1] about the coup and his desire for stability in South Asia. Instead of returning President Clinton’s call ,Musharraf called General Anthony C. Zinni, then head of CENTCOM. Addressing him as “Tony”, Musharraf explained his reasons and intentions, and General Zinni defended Musharraf in the media.
    Following the September 11, 2001 Attacks Musharraf has worked closely with President of the United States George W. Bush in the “War on Terror”, causing discontent, for various reasons, among some sections of the Pakistani population.
    Shortly after the events of 9/11, Musharraf gave a watershed speech [2] on Pakistan Television in which he pledged his and Pakistan’s support to the United States in its war on terrorism. Though the rise Taliban was largely an independent phenomenon, there exists an impression that the Taliban regime is a product of the Inter-Services Intelligence agency of Pakistan. After the Taliban had come to power in Afghanistan, Pakistan did maintain friendly relations with it, as it seemed to be war-torn Afghanistan’s best hope for stability. Stability in Afghanistan would allow the establishment of trade with Central Asian countries, and also reduce the number of refugees pouring into Pakistan from Afghanistan. To casual outside observers, the new policy seemed to be a sudden 180-degree turn from the old one and Musharraf’s support of Operation Enduring Freedom was judged to be an indicator of Musharraf’s sincerity by analysts at think tanks like the Brookings Institute.
    After Musharraf’s swift and strategically sound decision to cease Pakistan’s support of the Taliban, Pakistan cut the Taliban’s oil and supply lines, provided intelligence and acted as a logistics support area for Operation Enduring Freedom. Analysts said that Pakistani support for the USA was indispensable in defeating the Taliban in Afghanistan.
    Musharraf speaks fluent English and has given many interviews and speeches on various US and European TV channels and other media. He has spoken at a number of think tanks, for example, the Rand Corporation in Santa Monica, California, in June 2003. Right-wing Islamic parties in Pakistan have expreesed opposition to his support for the US-led war on terror. After the US invaded Iraq without a UN resolution, the surveys showed a decline in international public approval for its actions. Musharraf has bluntly refused to send any Pakistani troops to Iraq without a UN resolution.
    Popularity in Pakistan
    A widely-quoted Pew Center poll says of Musharraf:
    Pakistanis expressed highly favorable opinions of their president; 86% rate him favorably, and 60% view him very favorably, by far the highest rating of any leader in the survey.
    Several other independent polls, including polls by well-known organizations such as Gallup and the BBC, have also indicated that Musharraf has the support of a majority of the Pakistanis surveyed.
    Assassination attempts
    On December 14, 2003, General Musharraf survived an assassination attempt when a powerful bomb went off minutes after his highly-guarded convoy crossed a bridge in Rawalpindi. It was the third such attempt during his four-year rule. 11 days later, on December 25, 2003, two suicide bombers tried to assassinate Musharraf, but their car bombs failed to kill the president; 16 others nearby died instead. Musharraf escaped with only a cracked windshield on his car. It was suspected that the attacks were carried out by al-Qaeda-linked terrorists – al-Qaeda second-in-command Ayman al-Zawahiri had publicly called for his assassination. It has been reported that Amjad Hussain Farooqi is suspected of being the mastermind behind these attempts, and there has been an extensive manhunt for him.
    Elections during Musharraf’s administration
    On 12 May 2000, the Supreme Court of Pakistan ordered Musharraf to hold national elections by 12 October 2002, Elections for local governments took place in 2001. Elections for the national and provincial legislatures were held in October 2002, with no party winning a majority. In November 2002, Musharraf handed over certain powers to the newly elected Parliament. The National Assembly elected Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali as Prime Minister of Pakistan, who in turn appointed his own cabinet.
    The General;Pervez Musharraf
    On January 1, 2004 Musharraf won a confidence vote in the Electoral College of Pakistan, consisting of both houses of Parliament and the four provincial assemblies. Musharraf received 658 out of 1170 votes, a 56% majority, but many opposition and Islamic members of parliament walked out to protest the vote. As a result of this vote, according to Article 41(8) of the Constitution of Pakistan, Musharraf was “deemed to be elected” to the office of President. His term now extends to 2007. While Musharraf’s 2002 referendum on his rule had been heavily criticized and dismissed by critics, his electoral-college victory has received much greater acceptance within and outside Pakistan.
    Prime Minister Jamali resigned on 26 June 2004, and in his place the National Assembly elected Shaukat Aziz, a former Vice President of Citibank and head of Citibank Private Banking. The new government was mostly supportive of Musharraf, who remained President and Head of State in the new government. Musharraf continues to be the active executive of Pakistan, especially in foreign affairs.
    Nuclear proliferation
    After the disclosure of nuclear proliferation by Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, known as the father of Pakistan’s bomb, Musharraf denied knowledge of or participation by Pakistan’s government or army in this proliferation. Dr. Khan a national hero, was arrested, despite domestic criticism. Musharraf continues to enjoy the strong support of the White House and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld. A.Q. Khan has been pardoned in exchange for cooperation in the investigation of his nuclear-proliferation network.
    Peace overtures with India
    Musharraf was Chief of Army Staff at the time of Pakistani incursions into the Indian-held disputed territory of Kashmir (Kargil sector), in the summer of 1999. Pakistani forces were ordered to retreat, some sources say, after huge pressure on the then Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif from the American President, who feared the conflict could turn into a nuclear catastrophe. However, a book co-authored by ex-CENTCOM Commander in Chief, Anthony Zinni asserts that Musharraf was the voice of moderation who persuaded Sharif to withdraw.
    In the middle of 2004, Musharraf began a series of talks with India to solve the Kashmir dispute. Both India and Pakistan have the tactical capability to launch nuclear strikes on every major city within each others’ borders. The two countries are continuing to aggressively increase their nuclear capabilities by producing more nuclear weapons, and improving their missile technologies by routinely conducting tests of ever more sophisticated missiles.
    Recent developments
    Musharraf said he would prefer some kind of “international guarantees” for implementation of any pact reached with India on the Kashmir issue, which he wants to be settled in a year’s time. In July of 2005, he started another wave of crackdown of people perceived to be extremists within the country.

    Posted in Pervaiz Musharraf Golden Era, Unconditional Love for Motherland | Leave a comment
    Pakistan was safer under Musharraf

    Posted on March 7, 2009
    Pakistan was safer under Musharraf: Former CIA official
    4 Mar 2009, 1942 hrs IST, IANS
    LONDON: A former CIA official, who headed its Bin Laden unit, says the Lahore terrorist attack on Sri Lankan cricketers is a direct result of the
    West’s insistence on replacing Pervez Musharraf with a democratically-elected president in Pakistan.
    Michael Scheuer, who headed the (CIA) Central Intelligence Agency’s counter-terrorism unit dedicated to tracking down al Qaida head Osama bin Laden, also said President Asif Ali Zardari’s recent ceasefire deal with the Taliban in parts of the Northwest province was to blame.
    He said the state of Pakistan “is approaching failure, and we really have ourselves to blame for this. Much of the problem that Pakistan has had in the last year is the result of our insisting that democracy return to the country.”
    “The result of democracy was putting in Zardari… It is a very tenuous situation and a very bad government to be in charge in that situation,” Scheuer told BBC on Tuesday.
    The former CIA agent said the Zardari government was “making various kinds of deals with the tribes in the hope that they will turn west towards Afghanistan and stop bringing their violence to Pakistan proper”.
    “This is just another step on the road toward hell if you will.”
    Scheuer added: “We are getting to the point [where] unless the Pakistani generals intervene again, you really could have a failed state.”
    His comments came after International Cricket Council (ICC) Chief Executive Haroon Lorgat revealed Tuesday that ICC security advisers had warned of the risks of playing cricket in post-Musharraf Pakistan.
    “I know for a fact that post the regime change in Pakistan, once Musharraf went”, the advice the ICC got from its security advisers was that they had more confidence under the previous regime, Lorgat said.
    “And that’s one of the reasons why we were not confident about holding the Champions Trophy” in Pakistan, he added.
    The Champions Trophy was moved away from Pakistan in a January meeting of the ICC.

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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Pervez Musharraf - Best Economic planner






    January 22, 2012 | Posted by Rhythm of Unity in BlogNo comments


    Yes, Musharraf should not come back. Lal Masjid,12 May 2007 and sacking of judiciary of 3 Nov 2007 are the common reasons for Musharraf being disloyal. But punish him for these crimes, at least he is not a traitor or a dishonest person, for prove me one rupee or $ of corruption he did. Even Ayub and Zia families made a lot of fortune, Musharraf didnt. Its proven.
    A lot of debates, discussions, talk shows have been taking place on the future political aspects of General Musharraf. I am and will always be a huge admirer of former President, but not because of the NRO. The same NRO he promulgated to withdraw the cases of political leaders and some of the murderers including Altaf Hussain. I am an honest follower. To say I no longer support Musharraf because of NRO is not what real admirers do. But yes I support punishment. I will support any punishment for him promulgating that ordinance.
    I have been debating the extensive economic and investment growth in the Musharraf era. Most of the people argued that the economic development was the result of extensive aid we received after 9/11, in support for War on Terror. This was not entirely true. I didnt have facts & figures to prove these claims then. But thankfully, now I have.
    The following is a paper written by Dr. Ishrat Hussain, Dean and Director of the Institute of Business Administration, Karachi. This can be the most comprehensive report to answer the baseless allegations by some political parties referring to the development during Musharraf era as a ‘bubble’. Same views were expressed by Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan , off the record, during an interaction discussing the policies of Military Government. The report focuses on the financial stability, policies and various factors that were responsible for stabilizing the economy during the 9 year old regime
    Pakistan’s Economy 1999/2000 – 2007/2008


    An objective appraisal
    1. This paper attempts to present an objective appraisal of Pakistan’s economy for the past 8 years by sifting facts from fiction, separating analysis from emotions, presenting the strengths and weaknesses of the economy in an even handed and balanced manner and drawing conclusions based on these facts and analysis rather than perpetuating popular rhetoric and half-truths. This paper is divided into three sections – Facts, Analysis, Conclusion and Looking ahead.
    SECTION – I
    FACTS
    Legacy of the 1990s
    2. After an impressive record of economic growth and poverty alleviation during the 1980s Pakistan suffered serious setbacks in the 1990s in terms of most economic and social indicators. Economic growth rates decelerated, inflation rose to peak rates, debt burden escalated substantially, macroeconomic imbalances widened and worst of all the incidence of poverty almost doubled. Pakistan’s credibility in the international financial community was at its lowest ebb as successive agreements concluded with the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) were not implemented. Confidence of the local investors was eroded when the hard earned foreign currency deposits of resident and nonresident Pakistanis, accumulated over a long period of time, were suddenly frozen. Foreign investors were unhappy as all the power purchase agreements were being reexamined and criminal action was initiated against Hubco.
    3. The annual growth rate during the 1980s was 6.3 per cent, which decelerated to 4.9 per cent during the first half of the 1990s, and further down to 4 per cent during the second half. While the agriculture sector showed remarkably satisfactory performance and recorded higher growth than in the 1980s a major setback occurred due to poor output by the manufacturing sector. As compared to an average record of 8.2 per cent the sectoral growth witnessed a sharp fall to almost 4 per cent in the 1990s. The services sector also could not keep up its historical pace and showed a relatively lower growth rate. Since this sector is a major source of employment generation, particularly in the urban and non-farm rural areas, it can easily be surmised that overall employment rate suffered as well.
    4. Investment ratio moving in a downward direction since 1995 reached 13.9 per cent in 1998-9. This backlog of investment made it even more difficult for the economy to resume a higher growth path. Financing to achieve higher investment rate was also problematic as foreign savings, which used to bridge the gap between national savings and investment dried up in the wake of the May 1998 events.
    5. The persistence of fiscal and external deficits led to accumulation of large domestic and external debt throughout the decade. Total debt consequently rose from $20 billion in June 1990 to a peak of $43 billion in May 1998. Pakistan’s external debt reached 47.6 per cent of GDP, having grown at an average annual rate of 8.1 per cent throughout the 1990s. The net present value of external debt as a percentage of exports was estimated at 230 per cent in 1998-much higher than the safe limit of 150 per cent.
    6. The burden of stock of external debt and foreign currency liabilities rose from 258 per cent of total foreign exchange earnings in 1990 to 364 per cent in May 1998. The ratio of debt service payment due to foreign exchange earnings rose from 23.3 to above 40 per cent in the same period. These ratios clearly suggest that external debt burden had become unsustainable.
    7. Domestic debt growth was more rapid in the 1990s-13.7 per cent per annum, and this was a direct consequence of liberalization of interest rate and the need to finance growing fiscal deficit. Domestic debt accounted for 49.1 per cent of GDP.
    8. The structural burden of overall public debt thus became more onerous. Public debt grew from Rs. 802 billion in 1990 to Rs. 2971 billion in June 1999. As a percentage of GDP the increase was 93.7 to 102 per cent, while as a proportion of revenue the burden rose from 470 to 625 per cent. Public debt service claimed as much as 61 per cent of total revenues in mid-1999 compared to 35.7 per cent in 1990 thus leaving very little fiscal space for development expenditure.
    9. The burgeoning burden of debt service was reflected in the. persistently high level of fiscal deficit, above 7 per cent of GDP, while primary deficit began to slide from 2 per cent of GDP in 1990-5 to 0.3 per cent in 1995-9. The other major contributory factors, besides the increased burden of debt servicing for fiscal imbalances, was lower tax effort. Tax-GDP ratio had moved up to 14.4 per cent by 1994-5 but since then it had consistently eroded and was down to 12.8 per cent by 1999-2000. As a consequence of this twin menace, development expenditure took a major hit and reached a low of 3 per cent of GDP from 8 per cent in the first half of the 1980s. The crowding-in of private investment could not take place as the beneficial effect of complementarity between private and public sector investment was not realized. Current expenditure excluding debt service and defence had to be contained thus squeezing social sector expenditures below the desirable level.
    10. External sector deficit also jumped from 2.6 per cent of GDP in the 1980s to 4 per cent in 1990s. A major factor responsible for this trend was stagnation of exports and the loss of market share in world exports. In the first half of 1990s merchandise exports remained stuck at about $6.8 billion. Then there was a significant discrete jump to $8.1 billion in the fiscal year 1995 but this jump proved to be an aberration, and the annual average in subsequent years hovered around $8.3 billion. This inability to expand exports in a buoyant world trade environment caused a loss of market share and made it more difficult to service external debt obligations. As foreign currency deposits of resident and non-resident Pakistanis were readily available to finance the current account deficit the policy makers were no longer pushed to take hard decisions on restructuring and reforming the economy. Despite the utilization of this ready source ‘of financing, it may be recalled, the volume of external debt doubled during this ten year period.
    11. Incidence of poverty also doubled during this decade, from 18 to 34 per cent, primarily due to lower growth, higher inflation and limited access by the poor to basic social services. Although the multi-donor supported Social Action Programme was intended to help Pakistan improve its education, health care, nutrition, water supply and sanitation sectors the actual outcomes have been disappointing. Social indicators lag behind other countries in the region, and are much lower than the countries with similar per capita incomes.
    Macroeconomic Stabilization period 1999/2000 – 2001/02
    12. The most difficult challenge faced by the Military Government in October, 1999 was external liquidity problem i.e. its ability to meet its current obligations such as imports of goods and service, its debt service obligations and other payments at the same time .
    13. After May 1998, the country had lost an important source of external liquidity i.e. foreign currency deposits. Workers remittances through official channels were down to $ 1 billion. Foreign investment inflows were less than $ 400 million oil import prices had shot up from $ 14- $ 15 per barrel to $ 28- $ 30 per barrel and the oil import bill had doubled from $1.3 billion to $ 2.6 billion in first one year. Despite increase in the volume of textile exports, the unit value of exports were down by 7-10 percent on average. 14. There was thus a gap between external receipts and external payments of about $ 2.5 billion to $ 3 billion annually for the next few years. To met this gap and keep the wheels of the economy moving Pakistan had to get its debt service obligations reschedule and find ways to obtain external debt rescheduling or relief was to have an agreement with the IMF that was in good standing.
    15. Pakistan therefore had to enter into a stand-by arrangement with the IMF in 2000 for nine month period followed by a three year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). For the first time in the history of Pakistan the IMF was able to complete all the reviews successfully and released all the tranches on time. The credibility of Pakistan vis a vis international financial institutions was restored setting the stage for the re-profiling of Pakistan’s external debt owed to Paris Club. Contrary to popular perceptions, Pakistan had reached an understanding with the IMF before Sept.. 11, 2001 on the broad contours of debt stock re-profiling by Paris Club as it had successfully implemented the 09 month stand by program and became eligible for the medium term PRGF.
    16. Out of Pakistan’s total external debt and foreign exchange liabilities of $ 37.8 billion at the end of the fiscal year 2001-01, Pakistan’s bilateral debt to Paris Club was $ 12.5 billion. On December 13, 2001 Pakistan was able to re-profile this stock of bilateral debt by reaching an agreement with Paris Club for repayment of ODA component debt over a thirty eight years period with a grace period of 15 years and non-ODA component of debt over twenty three years with a five year grace period. In addition, the US cancelled its bilateral debt by $ 1 billion after September 11, 2001.
    17. The debt relief provided some fiscal space, allowed the government to reduce its fiscal deficit, and stabilize the economy. In addition, Pakistan started receiving new concessional loans from the IMF, World Bank and Asian Development Bank which helped in financing the current account and fiscal deficits.
    18. During the years 1999/2000 to 2001/02 the economy was able to achieve the following results:-

    • Fiscal deficit was reduced from 5.4 to 4.3 percent of GDP.
    • Trade gap narrowed from $ 1.6 billion to $ 1.2 billion. Current account

    balance turned surplus to $ 2.7 billion from a deficit of $ 1.9 billion.

    • Workers’ remittances jumped 2.5 times from $ 1,060 million to about $ 2,400 million.
    • FDI flows averaged $ 400 million annually.
    • Re-profiling of bilateral debt stock resulted in a saving of debt servicing of $ 1 billion annually.
    • Repayment of $ 4.5 billion private, commercial and short term debt and

    liabilities reduced the stock of debt and thus extinguished future debt servicing obligations.

    • IMF, World Bank, ADB and other donors provided concessional assistance of about $ 2.5-3 billion annually while their hard term loans were repaid.
    • Foreign exchange reserves held by State Bank of Pakistan rose from $ 991 million FY 1999-2000 to $ 1.677 billion in FY 2000-01 and $ 4.333 billion by FY 2001-02.
    • Pakistan’s exports increased from $ 7.8 billion to $ 9.2 billion by June 2001.
    • New foreign currency deposits of $ 2.1 billion were opened by resident and non-resident Pakistanis.

    19. Table –I summarizes the changes in key macroeconomic indicators that have taken place between 1998/99 and 2001/02.
    Growth Acceleration period 2002/03-2006/07
    20. Pakistan’s economic performance in this sub-period has been impressive in terms of income per capita, employment generation and poverty reduction. As a result of reasonably high GDP growth rate of about 6.3 percent a year for five years the per capita income in current dollar terms has risen to about $ 1000. GDP growth that was 3.1 percent in 2001/02 rose to 7 percent in 2006/07. There is a general consensus that poverty was reduced during this period but the magnitute of reduction varies between 5 percentage points to 10. Unemployment rate has also fallen from 8.4 percent to 6.5 percent and about 11.8 million new jobs were created in FY99-08 period. Gross and net enrolment at primary level have improved over these five years. Among the health indicators children immunization, incidence of diarrhea and infant mortality have shown favourable changes.
    - The stock of External debt and liabilities as percentage of foreign exchange earnings has been reduced to 125 percent from 224 percent in 2001/02. As a percentage of GDP it is down to 28 percent from 46 percent. The country’s debt servicing capacity improved considerably as debt servicing declined sharply to 9 percent of foreign exchange earnings from 26 percent.
    - Foreign exchange reserves rose to US $ 14 billion covering six months’ imports from $ 6.4 billion in FY02.
    - Exports of goods and services went up from $ 13.6 billion to $ 21.2 billion recording an increase of 55 percent.
    - Low interest rates that touched as low as 4 to 5 percent encouraged private investment and fuelled growth.
    - Revenue growth remained strong. Tax Revenues rose 14 percent annually doubling in five years.
    - Fiscal deficit remained below or slightly above 4 percent of GDP, despite the post earthquake relief and reconstruction expenditures.
    - Manufacturing sector recorded an increase in its share of GDP from 14.7% to 19.1% by FY07.
    - In productive sectors growth was broad-based. The share of agriculture declined from 26% in FY00 to 21% in FY07 while that of industrial sector to 27% from 23% over this period.
    - Investment rate grew to 23% in FY07 after averaging around 18.6% over the previous three years reflecting a 4.4 percentage point growth in investment /GDP ratio.
    - There was a significant growth in foreign capital inflows, cumulatively estimated to be around $ 13.5 billion over this period. The telecom sector ($ 4.6 billion), banking sector ($ 2.7 billion) and oil and gas sector ($ 1.4 billion) were the major recipients of foreign direct investment.
    - A six fold increase took place in workers remittances through official channels that is set to reach $ 6.5 billion for FY08. The foreign exchange companies that were brought under the regulatory framework of the State Bank of Pakistan contribute another $ 3-4 billion of foreign exchange flows.
    - Monetary policy was managed to kick start the economy when it was trapped in low growth-low inflation equilibrium. The policy was subsequently tightened to put inflationary pressures in check by lowering core inflation. However, inflation target slipped due to the uptrend in the global commodity prices as well as inefficiencies of wholesale and retail markets.
    - Private sector credit for financing fixed investment as well as working capital grew at an average rate of 25.5% in this sub-period. Profitability of banking sector surged reaching $ 1.7 billion in FY07. Net NPLs ratio declined to 2.3%.
    - Capital market capitalization reached $ 65.9 billion by end FY07 from $7.51 billion. 60 new IPOs were listed on Karachi Stock Exchange and 48 corporate debt bonds were also issued in this period.
    - Average tariffs have come down quite appreciably. Tariffs on imports average 7.6 percent and tariff on imports of plant, machinery and equipment for industrial sector has been reduced to 5% and for agriculture sector to zero percent while 50% initial depreciation allowance is permitted. Free Trade agreements have been concluded with China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Iran and Mauritius.
    - Agriculture credit disbursement by banks multiplied six fold and most of the credit went to small farmers. Similarly more than 1.2 million borrowers have received micro finance loans without any collateral.
    - Pakistan’s foreign exchange earnings almost tripled from $ 16.8 billion in FY00 to $ 46.0 billion. Excluding foreign loan disbursements and official grants the increase recorded was from $ 14.3 billion to $ 42 billion.
    21. Table-II presents a summary of the changes in key macroeconomic indicators over the seven year period 1999/2000- 2006/07.
    Economic Regress 2007/ 08
    22. The year 2007-08 has been a difficult year for Pakistan’s economy. It must be conceded that the momentum of growth slowed down and a temporary derailment from the track has taken place. What has happened to the economy in the last nine months can be gleaned from the following facts:-
    - GDP growth rate will be below the target and is likely to be in the range of 6-6.5 percent.
    - Fiscal deficit, if not contained in the coming three months, will exceed 7-8 percent of GDP breaching the limit prescribed in the Fiscal Responsibility Act.
    - A worsening trade imbalance is fuelling external current account deficit to exceed 6 percent of GDP.
    - Foreign capital inflows that are required to finance the current account deficit are running below last year’s level and are unlikely to meet the financing requirement.
    - Inflationary pressures have intensified largely due to exceptionally high food inflation that is hurting the poor and the fixed income groups badly. Inflation may, in fact, cross 10 percent on year to year basis.
    - The drawdown of foreign exchange reserves to meet the oil import bill is creating pressures on Rupee-dollar exchange rates.
    - As public expenditures have outpaced revenue collection the government borrowing from the State Bank of Pakistan has jumped to a record Rs.359 billion during the first nine months of the fiscal year compared to Rs.26 billion in the corresponding period of last fiscal year.
    - The consequence of such excessive government borrowing has been a sharp growth in money supply to 17.6 percent offsetting the Central Bank’s efforts to tighten monetary policy.
    - In agriculture sector, cotton and rice crops have not performed well and the wheat crop is also expected to be lower than last year’s actual production. A combination of factors such as 20 percent decline in DAP off take, delay in announcement of wheat support price and anticipated reduction in availability of irrigation water do not make the prospects of a large wheat crop look bright.
    - Growing food insecurity, now extending to almost one half of the population can be exacerbated if the wheat procurement, import, storage, reserve and release management are not handled properly. Deepening food crisis globally is likely to take its toll on Pakistan too.
    - Electricity and gas load shedding due to shortages in generation will have adverse impact on manufacturing and export sectors of the economy. Large Scale Manufacturing (LSM) growth in the first half of the fiscal year has already slowed down to 4.2 percent – one half of the rate recorded in July-December, 2006.
    SECTION – II
    ANALYSIS
    23. An analysis of developments during the three sub-periods has to isolate the impact
    of various factors on the economic performance and outcome. These factors are:
    (1) Strength and weaknesses of economic strategy and policies pursued.
    (2) External environment and exogenous shocks – favorable or unfavorable.
    (3) Institutional capacity, governance and quality of economic management.
    24. The analysis should essentially shed light on the question whether it was good luck, good policies or good management or a mix of the three which led to the economic outcomes in a particular period. The motivation behind such an analysis is not to score points or point out finger and apportion the blame or take credit but to understand as to what has worked well so far, what hasn’t worked and why and to build the future policies and their implementation on the basis of the insights gained from such an understanding.
    25. The analysis presented in this section covers three sub-periods: (a) 1990s (b) 1999/2000-2006/07 and (c) 2007/08. The lumping together of the whole period 1999/2000-2006/07 stems from the premise that there was continuity and consistency of policies initiated and implemented in this period. This sub-period is analyzed in detail and the contribution all the three factors is presented here.
    (a) 1990s
    26. The evidence presented above clearly shows that the 1990s was a lost decade in terms of stunted growth, increase in incidence of poverty, burden of debt, large fiscal and current account imbalances, poor social indicators, higher rate of inflation. But in all fairness the entire blame for this particular outcome cannot be laid on the economic managers and policy makers of that time.
    27. There are at least four main factors, which can be put forward as determinants of the performance in the 1990s. First, political instability and frequent changes in the government followed by reversal of decisions taken by the preceding government created an environment of uncertainty, lack of predictability and discounting of policy implementation of programmes and projects. Second, there was widespread misgovernance by the two major political parties which alternated in ruling the country during this period. Personal, parochial and party loyalty considerations dominated decision making; institutions were bypassed and individual whims and fancies reigned supreme with no checks and balances on discretionary excesses and corruption. Third, there was lack of political will to take timely hard decisions. The cumulative effect of avoiding and postponing such decisions and failure to correct the distortions at the right time proved too costly. Fourth, there were unforeseen exogenous shocks, for example, the nuclear testing in May 1998 which shook investors’ confidence, accelerated flight of capital, led to the imposition of economic sanctions and disrupted external economic assistance.
    28. The economic sanctions imposed as a consequence of Pressler amendment and an uneasy relationship with the International financial institutions throughout the 1990s did not allow much room for maneuver to pursue structural reforms that were badly needed for bringing the economy out of morass.
    29. It must, however, be recognized that the decision taken by the PPP Government to open power sector to private producers in 1994 that was widely criticized at that time turned out to be both right as well as timely. The power shortages that have severely hit Pakistan in the last few years would have been even worse if the capacity created by independent power producers was not available. Similarly, the Nawaz Sharif Government was criticized for constructing Lahore-Islamabad Motorway through private-public partnership. Subsequent events have not only vindicated this decision but the successor government initiated and completed several such projects.
    (b) 1999/2000 – 2001/ 02
    Policy Reforms
    30. The highest priority of the Military Government was a major restructuring of the country’s external debt portfolio in a way to bring it in alignment with its debt servicing capacity. By re-profiling the stock of official bilateral debt through Paris Club, substituting concessional loans for non-concessinal loans from international financial institutions, pre-paying expensive loans and liquidating short term external liabilities the government was successful in executing the strategy of external debt management in a two to three year period. This restructuring of debt put Pakistan on a firm footing as the debt and debt servicing ratios have been on a declining path and the capacity to meet the future foreign exchange liabilities and obligations without much difficulty has been enlarged. Pakistan was no longer vulnerable to external shocks as it was in 1998 at the time of the nuclear tests. Although the assistance and conditionalities agreed with the IMF were the pre-requisite for debt restructuring this lowering of debt burden, in fact, made it possible for Pakistan to exit from the IMF program well before the specified time. Pakistan became one of the few emerging market economies that was able to make a successful transition from IMF programme to international financial markets.
    31. It must be clarified that it is not the absolute amount of debt that really matters. In a growing economy this amount will continue to rise in absolute terms. What is important to see is whether the burden of debt and debt servicing is rising, falling or is stagnant in relation to the national income, foreign exchange earnings, exports and government revenues. As Section-I clearly shows every indicator of debt and debt servicing is recording a downward movement since, 2002. Realizing that debt restructuring would prove short lived if it was not accompanied by macroeconomic stabilization measures, structural reforms to remove microeconomic distortions and improvement in economic governance the government initiated a reform program. The main thrust of these reforms was to allow greater freedom to the private sector to own, produce, distribute and trade goods and services while gradually withdrawing the public sector from this arena. The role of the state in Pakistan was redefined as a facilitator, enabler, protector and regulator rather than directly managing and presiding over the commanding heights of the economy. Government intervention was justified for social protection of the poor, provision of public goods, infrastructure, Human Development, Science and Technology. Although the State has not always adhered to the new role assigned to it and has shown dominance in actual practice there is a political consensus in the country on the boundaries between the public and private sectors.
    32. Significant efforts were made in unilaterally liberalizing the trade regime. The maximum tariff rate has declined to 25 percent; the average tariff rate stands at just 9 percent. The number of duty slabs were also been reduced to four. Quantitative import restrictions have been eliminated except those relating to security, health, public morals, religious and cultural concerns. The statutory orders that exempted certain industries from import duties or provided selective concessions to privileged individual firms were phased out and import duties on 4,000 items were reduced. A number of laws have also been promulgated to bring the trade regime in conformity with World Trade Organization regulations These include anti-dumping and countervailing measures and protection of intellectual property rights. A stable exchange rate policy helped maintain predictability and competitiveness of Pakistani exports.
    33. Concurrently with the debt restructuring, the country embarked on the fiscal policy reforms and consolidation by raising tax revenues, reducing expenditures, cutting down subsidies of all kinds and containing the losses of public enterprises. Tax reforms were undertaken to widen tax base, remove direct contact between tax payers and tax collectors, introduce value-added tax as the major source of revenue, simplify tax administration and strengthen the capacity of the Central Board of Revenue. Although these reforms are still underway, the adoption of universal self assessment followed by random audit of selected tax returns, automation and reorganization of the tax machinery have begun to help improve tax collection. Tax-GDP ratio in Pakistan is lower in comparison to other developing countries and has to be raised in the next five years to reach the average level of comparator countries.
    34. As one of the sources of fiscal problems was the losses and inefficiencies of public enterprises the Government actively pursued an aggressive privatization plan whose thrust was sale of assets to strategic investors. The sectors where most progress has been made are oil and gas, banking, telecommunications and energy. Foreign investors were encouraged to participate in the privatization process and a large number of them have been successful. The transactions completed in the last five years yielded $ 3 billion. The privatized banks are now contributing substantial sums to the national exchequer as they have all become profitable.
    35. There has been a major and perceptible liberalization of the foreign exchange regime. Foreign investors can set up their business in Pakistan in any sector of the economy – agriculture, manufacturing real estate, retail trade, services, banking etc., bring in and take back their capital, remit profits, dividends, royalties and fees etc., without any prior approvals. Foreign companies are allowed to raise funds from domestic banks and capital markets.
    36. Financial sector reforms in Pakistan were accelerated in this period. The Central Bank was granted autonomy and the control of the Ministry of Finance over banking institutions was diluted. Net non-performing loans of the banking system were brought down to less than 3 percent of total advances and loans, minimum capital requirements were raised to $100 million and the quality of new loans improved. Mergers and consolidation of financial institutions have eliminated a number of weaker players and the range of products and services offered by the banks widened. The privatization of Habib Bank, United Bank, and Allied Bank – three large nationalized commercial banks of the country has transformed the banking sector into an efficient, privately owned and managed sector but regulated by a strong and vigilant Central Bank. The share of the private sector ownership of the banking assets has risen to 80 percent and the banking sector is facing a healthy but strong competitive environment. The banks are highly profitable and automation, on-line banking and multiple channels of delivery have improved the efficiency of services in response to market competition. The widening of the banking spreads, however, remains an area of concern and shows that there are still in efficiencies in the system.
    37. Banking System has started to meet the financing requirements of sectors such as Agriculture, SME, salaried classes, and the poor who had no access in the past. The borrower base of the banking system has multiplied from over 1 million to 4.5 million households in last five years. The middle and lower middle class consumers are now enjoying car loans, mortgages, credit cards, consumer durables. Small farmers are using bank credit for buying chemical fertilizers, certified seeds, insecticides, small implements and hiring tractor services. Small and medium entrepreneurs are using bank credit to expand their fabrication and manufacturing capacities and upgrading technology. Landless labor and poor women in the rural areas are receiving micro loans for poultry, small livestock, sewing machines, etc. The number of households who have borrowed microfinance loans has gone up from almost zero to about 1.5 million. The out reach for small and medium enterprises, agriculture and microfinance remains limited and has to be expanded particularly in the rural areas and backward districts.
    38. Deregulation of oil and gas, telecommunication, media and civil aviation sectors have also brought about significant positive results. Oil and gas exploration activity was stepped up and constant discovery and production from new gas fields operated by private sector companies has added new capacity to meet the growing energy needs of the country. Telecommunication has witnessed a boom since the private sector companies were allowed licenses to operate cellular phones. One million new cellular phone connections are being added every month and the number of phones has already reached more than 70 million or a penetration rate of almost 50 percent. Long distance international and local loop monopoly of Pakistan Telecommunications Corporation has been broken and new licenses including for wireless local loop have been issued. The customers are reaping rich dividends as the prices of phone calls – local, long distance, international – are currently only a fraction of the previous rates. Lower telecommunication costs and increased penetration have a favourable impact on the productivity in the economy.
    39. The success of the policies pursued in this period can be gauged from the fact that Pakistan was able to regain its economic sovereignty from the IMF as early as 2004. The economy was able to stand on its own feet and developed the capacity to withstand external and internal shocks. Investor confidence was restored Pakistani. Workers living abroad used official channels to remit their earnings. International financial institutions were forthcoming with their assistance because the country had established credibility. International financial markets responded to Pakistan’s bond and equity issues with great enthusiasm. Pakistan ranks high among South Asian countries on the index of Ease of doing business although the rising costs, outages and interruptions have added to the difficulties in last year or so.
    40. The veracity of the above analysis can be verified by looking at the research reports and analyses produced by the IMF, World Bank, ADB, J.P. Morgan, Deutsche Bank, Merrill Lynch, Goldman Sachs. The upgradings that have taken place in Pakistan’s credit worthiness by S&P and Moody’s between 2000 and 2007, the inclusion of Pakistan in the emerging markets by the Economist in London and other emerging market indices are a testimony to the growing importance of Pakistan’s economy.
    41. If the foundations of the economy were built on a slippery slope and on propaganda and fudging of figures and not on sound fundamentals the globally established and well respected financial institutions, fund managers and multinationals would dare not invest a single penny in Pakistan. Nor Pakistani debt and equity papers would have received such rousing reception in international financial markets. After all, there is so much competition worldwide for investors’ money. They voted with their dollars to come and invest, lend and do business in Pakistan despite the horrible image that is propagated by the international media everyday of the year.
    42. It was also realized that these structural reforms are unlikely to be sustainable if the economic governance structure is not put right. Although Pakistan has a long way to go in improving governance some measures have been taken to move in this direction.
    Economic governance
    43. The cornerstone of the governance agenda was the devolution plan which transferred powers and responsibilities, including those related to social services from the federal and provincial governments to local levels. Development effort is driven at the local level by priorities set by elected local representatives, as opposed to bureaucrats sitting in provincial and federal capitals. Devolution of power, with passage of time and after overcoming initial teething problems will strengthen governance by increasing decentralization, de-concentration, accountability and people’s participation in their local affairs. However, in the meanwhile the transition has created its own set of dislocations and disruptions particularly in law and order and security that needs to be addressed.
    44. Other essential ingredients for improving economic governance are the separation of policy and regulatory functions which were earlier combined within a ministry. Regulatory agencies have been set up for economic activities such as banking, finance, aviation, telecommunications, power, oil, gas etc. The regulatory structures are now independent of the ministry and enjoy quasi-judicial powers. The Chairman and Board members enjoy security of tenure and cannot be arbitrarily removed. They are not answerable to any executive authority and hold public hearings and consultations with stakeholders. These regulatory authorities are still not fully effective due to inadequate human resource base.
    45. The National Accountability Bureau (NAB) was established under a new legal framework as the main anti-corruption agency. A large number of high government officials, politicians and businessmen were sentenced to prison, subjected to heavy fines and disqualified from holding public office on charges of corruption after conviction in the courts of law. Major loan and tax defaulters were also investigated, prosecuted and forced to repay their overdue loans and taxes. Subsequent actions taken in response to political expediency have tarnished to the image of NAB and compromised its integrity.
    46. Some important legislative and institutional developments that have taken in the last few years will also help in economic governance. The bane of Pakistan’s economic problems stemmed from fiscal indiscipline over a decade that plunged Pakistan into a debt trap. This root cause had therefore to be surgically removed so that it does recur in the future. A Fiscal Responsibility Law has been approved by the Parliament, which keeps a lid on the government’s propensity to borrow their way out. Debt / GDP ratio has to be reduced by 2.5 percentage points each year and the Debt/ GDP ratio cannot exceed 60 percent. Any deviation has to be explained to the Parliament and need its approval. This law will hopefully act as a major restraint on fiscal recklessness in the future.
    47. Monetary policy is now operated by an independent central bank keeping the objective of price stability, financial stability and growth in mind. Although it involves a fine balancing act and inflationary pressures have surfaced during the last two years the Central Bank is committed to pursue a monetary policy that keeps inflation under control. Indirect market- based policy instruments have replaced credit ceilings, caps on deposit and lending rates, preferential treatment to government and directed credit to priority sectors. Interest rates and exchange rates are market determined and credit allocation decisions are made by the individual banks based on objective criteria but guided by prudential regulations.
    48. As the paragraphs on weaknesses and shortcomings would discuss there have been many lapses on the part of the government particularly in 2007/08 in management of the economy, hiatus in governance reforms and diversion of attention from economic policy issues.
    External Environment
    49. In this period Pakistan had to suffer several external shocks. A prolonged drought resulted in shortage of irrigation water for agriculture, the tensions with India led to mobilization of troops on the border, the terrorist attacks on foreign nationals in Karachi, the Sept. 11 attacks on the World Trade Centre and the subsequent participation of Pakistan in the war against terror had serious consequences for the economy. 50. A favorable external environment following September 11, 2001 played a highly supportive role in the sub period 2002/ 03 – 2006/ 07. Economic sanctions were removed, increased bilateral and multilateral assistance flowed in, bilateral external debt was restructured and re-profiled, workers’ remittances multiplied several fold, Foreign direct investment poured in large volumes and access to international capital markets was established. The most controversial issue is that of impact of September 11, 2001 on the turnaround of Pakistani economy. A fuller analysis of this event is therefore quite critical.
    Impact of September 11 Events.
    51. A large number of observers and casual empiricists both within and outside Pakistan have been making bold but untested assertion that it is the massive aid flows and debt relief resulting from Pakistan’s participation in the war against terror after September 11, 2001 that has been responsible for the large reserve accumulation and economic turnaround. It is true that following this event workers’ remittances were diverted from open market to interbank, debt relief was provided and new loans and grants were granted, official sanctions were removed, but there were also huge costs incurred by Pakistan It is conveniently forgotten that thousands of innocent lives of Pakistani soldiers
    and civilians have been lost, a deep sense of in-security prevails in the country, foreign travel advisories have discouraged visits of businessmen, tourists and buyers, higher war risk premia are charged, shipping freights have gone up, insurance premia on Pakistani goods have escalated and export orders have been diverted. The frequency and ferocity with which suicide bombers are attacking the political leaders, installations and targets has added to gravity of law and order problem in the country. Export orders of more than $1 billion were cancelled right after the event and the recovery has not yet taken place. As against continued growth in exports in other countries of the region there has been a significant slow down in Pakistani exports particularly textiles due to the uncertainty created in the minds of buyers aboard and their limited exposure to the actual conditions. IT industry, that was just taking off in 2001, has been badly hurt as all contracts for outsourcing were cancelled. Pakistan is no longer on the radar screen of the global IT industry which is expanding rapidly.
    52. The data presented in Table-III shows that even if we assume the extreme case that all official transfers, debt relief and all foreign loans/ credits represent the “gift” of September 11 to Pakistan, this combined amount represents only 10% of total Foreign Exchange Earnings of the Country in FY-06. At its peak in FY-02, the amount of flows from foreign assistance was 21.6%. But this entire amount is not a direct fall out of September 11 because Pakistan has been receiving foreign loans and grants every year since the 1950s. For example, in FY-00 and FY-01, the two years prior to September 11, 16 per cent and 19.9% of Foreign Exchange Earnings were received in form of foreign loans and grants. The country had a positive overall balance and positive current and capital account balances in FY 2000-01 much before September 11, 2001 occurred. Even in FY 1999-00 the deficit on overall balance was quite small less than 1% of GDP. Pakistan’s reserves had started accumulating in FY 2000-01 and SBP’s own reserves had almost doubled after paying off foreign currency deposits of almost $1.7 billion to the non-resident and institutional holders and $.2.8 billion in debt servicing to external creditors. Thus, this perception that every thing good that has happened to the country is a direct consequence of September 11 is not only incorrect but highly exaggerated for the reasons described below.
    53. It should be recognized that any external financial relief such as provided in the aftermath of Sept 11 would have dissipated quickly and thus remained temporary and transitory in nature until it was accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that clean up the economic landscape, unshackle the entrepreneurial energies of private economic actors, lay the foundations for competitive markets under the vigilant eyes of regulators and expand the productive and foreign exchange earning capacity of the country. As pointed out earlier it would not have been possible to take advantage of the benefits offered by Sept. 11 in absence of the reforms of financial sector, liberalization of trade and tariff regime, improvement in tax policy and administration, deregulation of oil and gas and telecom sectors and privatization of state owned enterprises.
    54. The data presented in Table-III clearly demonstrates that Pakistan’s foreign exchange earning capacity has expanded from $ 15 billion annually to $ 46 billion during the last six years or 33% of GDP from 20% of GDP. Contrary to popular perception, it is the Pakistani businesses and nationals working abroad who provide the bulk of the foreign exchange earnings of the country. It is totally fallacious to argue that if the foreigners particularly Americans withdraw their financial assistance then the country will be in dire trouble. About $ 30 billion are generated by Pakistani businesses and nationals and the remaining amount accrues from foreign direct investment, privatization and international markets. If this pattern of foreign exchange earnings persist in the future the relative share of foreign assistance in form of grants or loans from United States, other friendly bilaterals and multilaterals will continue to decline and will become insignificant in the next 5-10 years.
    55. In order to further evaluate the veracity of the assertions of the theory of dependence of our economy on the US, four key indicators are selected (a) US assistance as percent of Pakistan’s total budgetary expenditure (b) US assistance as percent of Pakistan’s total foreign exchange receipts (c) US assistance as percent of total current account receipts of Pakistan and (d) US assistance as percent of total value of imports of Pakistan. These indicators have been carefully chosen to see as to how much damage will accrue to our balance of payments and fiscal accounts if the US for one reason or the other abruptly decides to withdraw its assistance of all types.
    56. The results of this analysis shown in Table IV indicate that even under the worst case scenario of zero aid flows and no reimbursements for logistics services rendered in connection with the war on terror the diminution in foreign exchange receipts or budgetary resources would be insignificant – varying between 4.5% of total foreign exchange receipts to 7.2% of total budgetary expenditures. The other two indicators i.e. the proportions of total value of imports and current account receipts financed by U.S. assistance account for 6.4 % and 5.8% respectively – not worrisome amounts. The common held belief that Pakistan’s economic turnaround and sustained growth has taken place due to massive foreign assistance from the U.S. as a reward for participation in the war against terror is un-substantiated by the above empirical evidence.
    WEAKNESSES AND SHORTCOMINGS
    57. The main factor shaping the popular discourse in Pakistan that the benefits of the growth have not been widely shared is poor implementation capacity arising from a weak administrative structure in the country at all levels. Policy decisions are taken but they are questioned, reopened, and their implementation is hampered unnecessarily, delayed or slowed down at the bureaucratic level. Civil Service Reforms, Judicial Reforms, Police Reforms along with effective devolution of powers to local governments are badly needed in the country. The lack of access of the poor to the basic public services arises due to apathy, indifference and corruption prevalent among the civil servants who deal with public at large. A National Commission was formed to come up with the proposals to reorganize the Government and to restructure and invigorate the Civil Services. The Commission has completed its work and finalized its report. Many of the problem in our day-to-day governance can be resolved if the reforms proposed by the Commission are implemented faithfully.
    58. The other burning issues which agitated the minds of most Pakistanis during this sub-period were (a) high inflation (b) dissatisfaction with privatization of state owned enterprises (c) growing income inequalities (d) energy shortages (e) food security. These concerns are justified but there were cogent reasons behind each of these issues
    59. The strong growth performance of these five years increased the incomes of the middle class. Domestic consumption demand has been main driver of growth. As a consequence the demand for more goods and services translated into higher imports as well as shortages domestically in food, energy and other essential commodities. Higher international prices of oil, food and other commodities have in fact, worsened the situation. The rising demand due to increasing purchasing power of an expanding middle class combined with international factors have intensified inflationary pressures. Tight monetary policy pursued since 2005 did reduce core inflation but the higher food inflation (food forms 40 percent of consumer basket) did not allow the overall inflationary pressure to be mitigated. The average growth of 25% in imports reflecting the increase in oil prices, higher machinery imports over FY 03-07 and commodities outpaced export growth of 13% leading to a widening external current account deficit. Until FT07 capital inflows funded fully the external current account deficit and helped in building foreign exchange reserves (growing by $ 5.6 billion over FY 03-07) but the recent slowdown in inflows in causing anxiety.
    60. During the period FY2000-08 the Government sold off cumulatively almost $ 7 billion of assets and eased pressure on its budgetary resources as it no longer underwrote the losses of state owned companies and enterprises. For example, the Government had to inject Rs.41 billion to recapitalize Habib Bank and United Bank when it was under its control. After privatization not only the market value of the residual shares held by the government has risen significantly but these banks are paying hefty dividends and also taxes on their profits. The efficiency gains to the economy achieved after privatization have not been studied and therefore its impact has not appreciated. The Supreme Court judgment on Pakistan Steel Mills created some doubts about the transparency of the process and it is necessary to make suitable changes in the law and processes to allay these suspicious and fears once for all.
    61. The growing income and regional inequalities do pose some serious problems. This difference has arisen mainly due to the nature of the societal relationship that under pin various parts of the country. Southern Punjab, Rural Sindh, Balochistan outside Quetta, Northern and Southern districts of NWFP have not so far gained much from development activities relative to others because of the stranglehold of feudal and tribal traditions, remoteness and low literacy. The expanding inroads of urbanization and the communication revolution are likely to dilute these negative influences. In the meanwhile the Government took upon itself to invest heavily in infrastructure and connectivity in Balochistan. It is expected that these projects, when completed, will help in removing some of the constraints that impede the remote areas of Balochistan from participating in the economy. Consultations with and participation of local communities and stakeholders in the design and implementation of these mega projects may set at rest some of the resistance against these projects.
    62. Energy shortages have resulted from a combination of factors such as unanticipated high growth in demand, substantial hike in international oil prices, lack of response from the private sector, convoluted tariff setting process, bureaucratic and interagency turf fighting. Power shortages have inconvenienced the consumers and also caused serious problems for the businesses. Some of the projects in pipeline would be ready for commissioning in 2009 and ease the situation somewhat. The negotiations with Iran and India for Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline have become protracted and time consuming. A number of problems have been resolved in last one year but progress is still slow and has to be expedited.
    63. Food security issues are certainly a source of worry because of global supply and price shocks of main food staples. International prices of wheat have jumped 92 percent in last one year and rice prices have doubled. The Pakistani markets cannot remain insulated from these shocks despite the best efforts of the government. Wrong estimation of the surplus wheat crop last year led to erroneous decisions and the delay in fixing the support price this year caused uncertainty in the minds of the growers. The new Government has, however, taken decision to revise the support price and also imports have been allowed. These steps should help, along with targeted subsidies, in mitigating the hardships faced by the poor.
    2007-08 Period
    64. The trajectory of high growth trends has been disrupted in FY08 although all indications point to a 6 percent growth rate- quite respectable considering the severe external and domestic shocks the economy has suffered. This below target growth in FY08 does not call for despondency but for firm remedial action to put the economy back on track. An unanticipated strength in food, oil and commodity prices is mainly responsible for cost push driven inflation pressures in the economy and these pressures further intensified due to strong aggregate demand amidst a continuing fiscal stimulus. As a result, it is likely that the inflation would be in the range of 8-9 percent.
    65. The widening fiscal and current account deficits continued to create complications and add to inflationary pressure. Rise in fiscal deficit has more troubling implications than the increase in the previous year. The support to aggregate demand due to fiscal deficit contributed directly to a rise in monetary aggregates and rising inflationary pressures, complicating monetary management and stoking the growth of the current account deficit. 66. The combination of rising fiscal deficit and weak external receipts has pushed the government borrowings from State Bank of Pakistan to record Rs.359 billion during nine months of the FY08 compared to only Rs.26 billion in the corresponding period of last fiscal year. This has been instrumental in sustaining the growth of broad money for the period at 17.6 percent significantly offsetting the Central Bank’s efforts to tighten monetary policy.
    67. In agriculture sector, the disappointing performance of cotton and rice crops and the likely shortfall in wheat crop would not allow achievement of the targeted growth rate of 4.8 percent. Large scale manufacturing has been encountering relatively slower growth due to strong increases in the international commodity prices, domestic energy woes and dampened external demand for textile exports. Economic losses in the aftermath of December 27,2007 have further weakened the chances of meeting the annual target.
    68. International financial market turmoil and the unprecedented increase in global food and commodity prices have generated widespread financial costs and economic risks. It is unclear as to how far these prices are likely to hike up. Worldwide shortages of food and ban on exports of food staples by several countries present a rather bleak picture.
    69. The relative slowdown in foreign inflows to Pakistan triggered both by this turmoil in international financial markets and protracted and complicated political transition have put pressure on exchange rate, foreign exchange reserves and the differential between the inter-bank and open market rates.
    70. The momentum of privatization that began to slow down in FY07 was almost lost in FY08 as none of the intended transactions was completed. 61 state entitie that were in the pipeline remained untouched. On the other hand, the subsidies claimed by WAPDA, and PIA escalated substantially, the inter-enterprise circular debt that was completely eliminated in the earlier years resurfaced again, payments to oil marketing companies for price differential were delayed or only partially made and the independent private producers were not paid on time aggravating the energy shortages.
    71. Food, oil products, power and gas tariffs were not fully passed through to consumers in the wake of international price hikes accumulating large fiscal imbalance. Support price for wheat was not announced on time and slight shrinkage in area under wheat cultivation has been observed. Unprecedented increase in prices of DAP and shortages of irrigation water have further exacerbated the situation. The forecasts for 2008 wheat crop show non achievement of the postulated target. World rice prices have doubled and the exporters are purchasing the rice.
    72. The situation can be retrieved in the next twelve months or so if bold and courageous remedial actions are taken by the Government to rectify these imbalances and manage the food and energy shortages in a prudent manner. The challenge is, of course, quite formidable but it will earn kudos and good name for the government in the coming years near the completion of the electoral cycle.
    SECTION-III
    CONCLUSION AND LOOKING AHEAD
    73. The Military government which came to power in October, 1999 was faced with four main challenges (a) heavy external and domestic indebtedness; (b) high fiscal deficit and low revenue generation capacity; (c) rising poverty and unemployment; and (d) weak balance of payments and stagnant exports. In addition, Pakistan was perceived as a highly corrupt country with poor governance. Transparency International survey ranked Pakistan as the second most corrupt country in 1996. The situation was exacerbated by the initial negative reaction of the international community to the military takeover of the government as well by the high expectations of domestic populace, and the media, to hold those found guilty of corruption accountable. Further, the lingering dispute with Independent Power Producers (IPPs) particularly Hubco during the preceding three years had damaged the investor-friendly image of Pakistan. The distrust engendered by the freezing of foreign currency deposits of non-resident Pakistanis in May, 1998 had not yet been erased. Thus investor confidence was at its lowest ebb.
    74. Pakistan’s credibility was quite low with international financial institutions since the track record of performance on agreements reached with them, over the preceding ten years, was dismally poor. There was little empathy for Pakistan among these institutions and bilateral creditor governments, while at the same time it was not in a position to service its external debt obligations without immediate rescheduling. The country faced a serious external liquidity problem as its reserves were barely sufficient to buy three weeks imports, and could not possible service its short term debt obligations. Workers, remittances were down by $500 million, foreign investment flows had dwindled by $600 million, official transfers had turned negative and Pakistan had no access to private capital markets.
    75. In the domestic sector, the declining Tax-GDP ratio and inflexible expenditure structure, whereby 80 percent of revenues were preempted to debt servicing and defence, constrained the government’s ability to increase the level of public investment.
    76. It was against this backdrop of imminent default on external debt, and a heavy debt servicing burden in the budget that the military government had to design a strategy for economic revival in December, 1999.
    77. The facts and the analysis presented above clearly show that Pakistan’s economy has developed the strength and become resilient to withstand adverse shocks in relation to the situation prevailing in the decade of 1990s. Major structural reforms carried out between 1999/2000-2006/07, improvement in economic governance particularly key institutions and timely decisions paved the way the turnaround and built the resilience of the economy. The fiscal space created by sound economic management as well as provision of international assistance allowed the Government to raise the level of development expenditure five fold during this period i.e. from Rs.100 billion annually in FY 99-00 to Rs.525 billion in FY 07-08. This massive expansion in development outlay allowed completion of large projects such as Makran Coastal Highway, Gawadar Deep Sea Port, Peshawar – Islamabad Motorway, Karachi Northern By Pass, Mirani Dam, Lining of water courses, Raising of Mangla Dam work on 90 other mega projects is in different phases of implementation and when completed will bring large benefits of the economy. In the Education sector, the allocation to Higher Education sub-sector was raised ten fold from Rs.3.8 billion in 2001-02 to Rs. 33.76 billion in 207-08. President’s Education Sector Reforms program was launched at a cost of Rs.100 billion to achieve universal primary education, strengthen science education and to promote public-private partnership. Health indicators have shown considerable improvement and population growth rate has decreased from 2.7% to 1.8%. This large public investment in infrastructure and social services will start to pay dividends to the economy in the coming years.
    78. No doubt that the economy has derailed from the track in 2007/08 but with proper management it can be brought back to the track. Both international and domestic factors have contributed to the setbacks, slippages and hence a deterioration in key economic indicators. The government’s reluctance to make gradual adjustments in the prices of oil, electricity and gas particularly in response to the changing international conditions, the mismanagement of wheat situation, the postponement of new GDR and bond issues, the slowdown in further reforms particularly in the area of governance and devolution, the pre-occupation with political issues and judicial crisis, the absence of effective social protection and social assistance framework accentuated the inflationary pressures, amplified the imbalances on fiscal and external current account, created shortages of wheat, electricity and gas and wrongly given a widespread impression that the gains achieved in the previous seven years were illusory in nature based on fudged facts and figures. Nothing can be far from the truth. The seven year track record cannot be dismissed summarily as and it has been verified by international financial institutions, international bond issuers, fund managers, research analysts and foreign investors who have invested more than $ 14 billion in Pakistan’s economy. What is true that the original targets specified for 2007/08 are unlikely to be achieved and the economic outcomes are expected to be much worse than what was anticipated and prescribed in the beginning of the fiscal year. The motive for the understatement of domestic interest payments in the original budget estimates can be questioned. Whether it was sheer incompetence or deliberate attempt to put a lower number to contain fiscal deficit can be investigated, ascertained and disclosed to the public at large. But the non-achievement of many other targets and worsening of outcomes cannot be ascribed to across-the-board suppression or concealment of facts or fudging of figures but to the indecision and paralysis in management of the economy exhibited during the year by the previous elected government and the caretaker government.
    79. Some of the weaknesses manifested themselves in the recent months. The first was inability to cope with the looming energy shortages. The plans and projects of additional electricity generation, natural gas imports, alternative energy sources remained unfulfilled at the same time when the government was pushing the demand side through massive rural electrification, new gas connections, substantial increase in the use of air conditions and gadgets by a rising middle class and liberal consumer credit. Second the Government also did not develop a sound food security plan in which subsidies were targeted towards the poor and vulnerable segments of the population. Third, the Government did rightly increase public expenditures on development particularly infrastructure and social sectors but in many cases the cost overruns have delayed the benefits to the population.
    80. The temptation to blame the previous governments should be tampered with caution and not carried too far. To the extent that it raises doubts about the country’s financial and economic integrity, weakens the capacity to raise funds to meet the deficits and erodes investor confidence to bring in new investment the present government will have to bear the consequences. While a clear account should be place before the public the potential for the damage to the economy by indulging in scoring political points or attributing motives should also be considered.
    81. Finally, the question of sustainability of growth in the future has to be addressed squarely. There is a legitimate concern among may quarters that the growth achieved in the past five years is unsustainable as it was driven mainly by consumption liberalization. The sequencing embedded in the economic strategy adopted in December, 1999 emphasized macroeconomic stabilization in the first phase, and stepping up of growth in the next phase. It is quite possible that the first phase may have extended a few years beyond FY 02 if the external circumstances had not taken a turn for better. Different options were considered to kick start the economy that was trapped in low level equilibrium of low growth and low inflation in FY 02. As the country was faced with a heavy public debt burden and the aim of stabilization was to bring fiscal deficit down the fiscal policy stimulus option was ruled out. The improvement in financial intermediation process and low inflation rate motivated the policy makers to use monetary policy lever for the purpose of economic recovery. Low cost of capital enabled the banks to extend credit to a large number of businesses, SMEs, agriculture and also to the consumers for automobiles, mortgages and consumers durables. Large increase in private sector credit enabled an expansion in aggregate demand. Manufacturing industries which were operating at low capacity got a boost due to rising consumer demand and some of them were able to attain profitability because of the lowering of unit cost of production. Manufacturing sector recorded growth of 14, 15.5 and 10 percent in FY 04, 05 and 06 up from 4.5 percent in FY 02 and 6.9 percent in FY 03. As capacity was fully utilized in most industries new investment was undertaken to respond to this rising demand. The total fixed capital formation in manufacturing sector between FY 02 and FY 07 amounted to Rs.1300 billion due to double digit annual growth. From Rs.140 billion in 1999/2000 the fixed investment level in 2006/07 jumped to Rs.404 billion. It is estimated that the textile industry alone invested about Rs.300 billion in import of new machinery and equipment during this period. Cement industry increased its capacity from 18 million tons to 34 million tons while in 20000/01 only 9 million tons were sold. Along with manufacturing, transport and communications sector was the recipient of investment totaling Rs.1320 billion. As most of this investment is in various stages of implementation the benefits will accrue over next five years at least. It is true that complementary investment in power and gas was missing in this period eventually leading to disruptive energy shortages and slowdown in growth in the current year. But the cumulative public and public and private sector investment of Rs.8053 billion or US $ 134 billion made in the last eight years still has to add to output stream in the coming years. Investment –GDP ratio had already moved up to 23 percent in FY 07 –almost five percentage points higher than the average rate of 18 percent. Political stability after 2008 elections should also confer some dividends in form of further improvement in this investment ratio.
    82. A new dimension that has been introduced in the growth equation in the past one year i.e high international food prices. If managed carefully and assiduously this price boom can ensure food security for Pakistani citizens and also earn foreign exchange through exports of surplus food staples. The rice export capacity has already exceeded 3 million tons and an average price of $ 800 /ton can fetch almost $ 2.4 billion. Similarly, the wheat and maize crops have the potential of producing surpluses if proper pricing and marketing incentives are provided to the farmers. In case it is mishandled food shortages and price hikes can lead to riots like in other countries. The big question mark about the sustainability of growth in the future is as to how quickly and effectively the incoming government is able to tackle the issues of fiscal and current account imbalances, reassure the foreign and domestic investors about the direction of policies and governance and how the energy shortages are mitigated. In case, the new budget takes appropriate remedial measures and the energy situation improves in the coming year the country should be able to resume its path on the growth trajectory that has it followed since FY03. The economic fundamentals remain strong and only a course correction is needed.
    Looking ahead
    83. There is no doubt that the year 2007/08 was a difficult year for Pakistan’s economy. The incoming government has indeed inherited a difficult financial position. The momentum of economic growth has slowed down, macroeconomic stability has derailed from the tracks, investor confidence is in a state of hiatus and the tension between taking tough policy decisions to get the economy back on track by reducing the imbalances and providing immediate relief to the poor and the vocal fixed income earning classes poses serious political challenge for the incoming government. Externally, the environment is not favorable either. Turbulent financial markets, worldwide shortages of food, escalating prices of oil and commodities make the task of economic management even more difficult. Internally political uncertainty, recalcitrant bureaucracy, truculent terrorists and rent seeking businesses have worsened the situation.
    84. The first 100 days provide an excellent opportunity to take tough decisions needed to get the economy back on track, ring fence the poor and the fixed income groups by providing targeted subsidies, communicate frequently and constantly with the public explaining the rationale and justification for the decisions taken, the road map ahead and listen to the critics and commentators openly without being defensive.
    85. In the short term, the fiscal deficit has to be brought down by curtailing unproductive expenditures, slowing down the development projects that have not yet started and are not of critical nature, accelerating energy conservation and generation programmes, taxing the capital gains in stock market earned through short term trading, revaluing the urban property and recovering agriculture income tax from land owners beyond a certain limit, imposing taxes on services that are outside the net.
    86. In the medium term, food and agriculture production, agro-processing industries, marketing, storage and warehousing, transport, retail distribution have to be paid highest priority along with agriculture credit, insurance, microfinance and upgrading of rural infrastructure. Devolution to local governments to allocate resources and manage their own affairs should be strengthened along with fundamental reforms in the governance structure.
    87. In the long term, the industrial and export structure have to be diversified into more dynamic products such as engineering goods and services, steel, petrochemical complex, oil refineries are the essential ingredients upon which the new structure is to be based along with heavy investment in skilled and unskilled manpower development.
    You can also read the article here
    Tags: Army, Economy, GDP, Musharraf, Pakistan, Privitisation, USA, War on Terror
    Last edited by abdlsy; 10-Jan-2014 at 03:30 PM.


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Musharraf and economy

    From the Newspaper





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    Published 2013-04-23 05:06:40

    After taking over as the Chief Executive of Pakistan on Oct 12, 1999, Gen Pervez Musharraf took the responsibility of steering Pakistan clear from the brink of economic and societal disaster.
    His top most priority at that time was to establish good governance along with fiscal and economic discipline.
    He replaced institutional heads with professionals of high credence. One of his closest associates was assigned the task to develop a system for local governance who devised a meticulous system having endless possibilities for communal development.
    The ministry of trade and commerce flourished under Musharraf’s able guidance.
    Financial discipline was brought about by one of his key aides who later became prime minister and represented Pakistan at many economic forums.
    A renowned scientist was invited to lead the ministry of Science and Technology.
    An educationist from the province of Balochistan was handpicked to establish her credence at national and later at the international level under his able leadership.
    His other team members and close associates also played a pivotal role in making governance a success and make him stand out as a true leader.
    Later, Musharraf provided full support to the democratic governments at national and local levels and ensure the establishment of democratic norms.
    After the establishment of good governance standards, he started working towards the development of a soft image of Pakistan.
    He established cultural academies to further his vision of a cultured and civilised Pakistan.
    It was his capabilities that played a pivotal role in the establishment of regional stability and development of international relations between Pakistan and other states.
    His era was ultimately a true reflection of his rich cultured personality.
    SALMA MUMTAZ Karachi


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Kashmir settlement was near in Musharraf era, says Indian PM
    Updated at: Saturday, January 04, 2014 4:55:24 AM | Comments (0)
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    NEW DELHI: Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh claimed that vital breakthrough with Pakistan was almost near during the era of former President General (rtd.) Pervez Musharraf, SAMAA reported Saturday.

    An agreement with Musharraf was very close during his tenure; but any further development could not be achieved in connection with the breakthrough as the change of power occurred in Pakistan, Singh noted answering a query at a news conference in the Indian capital.

    The Indian PM said, "I have tried to improve relations with all our neighbors to the best of my ability and at one time it appeared that an important breakthrough was in sight. Events in Pakistan, for example, that General Pervez Musharraf had to make way for a different setup. I think that led to the process not moving further."

    Manmohan said the four-point pact included withdrawal of forces from Kashmir and unrestricted movement of people across the Line of Control (LoC).

    Replying to a question regarding his wish to visit his native area in Pakistan, he said, "I would very much like to go to Pakistan. I was born in a village which is now part of West Punjab but as Prime Minister of the country I should go to visit Pakistan when conditions are appropriate to achieve solid results." –SAMAA


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Musharraf's Economic Boom and Energy Demand for Pakistan


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    • Musharraf's Economic Boom and Energy Demand for Pakistan

    Musharraf's Economic Boom and Energy Demand for Pakistan

    Posted in Other | 30-Jul-07 | Author: Imran Khan
    "Musharraf's economic boom is attributive to the Musharraf government’s tentative allying with the U.S."
    After 60 years of Pakistani independence President Pervez Musharraf is dancing on a thin tightrope and juggling some hot issues. Among them: criticism for not fighting the Taliban sufficiently in their safe havens on Pakistan’s territory; criticism for not giving up his double role as President and head of the armed forces; and criticism from the Muslim side for raiding the Red Mosque. Yet others say he raided too late. The booming economy gives him some relief. But for how long? Behind the current problems there looms a burning mid-term issue: energy security. The growing demand for energy supply meets declining availability of energy – at home and abroad. Energy shortages and high prices might have a negative impact on Pakistan’s economy, threatening an already fragile domestic situation.
    In the long run it will be decisive for Pakistan’s economic and political future whether Pakistan can cope with the widening energy supply gap while competing with energy-hungry neighbours like India and China.
    At the crossroads of a burgeoning economy, an expanding industrial structure, a growing population and mass urbanization, Pakistan faces the energy-boom-and-economy-bust scenario. Like the country’s political troubles, the economy confronts trails of an energy demand stir. Straddling the crosscurrents of transition, the economy suffers an energy deficit just like the polity’s democratic crisis. As the latter is a direct result of military misadventures and an authoritarian political culture, the previous is impacted partly by economic growth, mismanagement of the political economy, and population explosion — nevertheless geo- economic- and -political bouts.
    Pakistan’s economic growth is historic; so is the surge in energy demand. The government’s approach towards energy security has unfortunately been anti-economic and anti-progressive. One after another, it has manipulated boom-and-bust projections to legitimize Pakistan’s nuclear program, to rationalize its geopolitical regional ambitions of a forward policy towards the western fringe of Afghanistan and of containment on the eastern front of India, to augment its geoeconomic potential by building pipelines and ports, and to craft an energy-plus-economic compact on the northern front with China.
    The purpose of this newsletter, however, is beyond these geopolitical conspiracies and conjugations. It articulates the scale of Pakistan’s energy insecurity by scaling the demand and supply gap, and outlines Pakistan’s pursuit of energy security by analyzing the causes of the worsening energy crunch. The newsletter also evaluates the scope of Pakistan’s energy optimizing strategy. Finally, the newsletter recommends legal, political, economic and structural measures in line with Pakistan’s energy security pursuit.
    Pakistan’s Energy Economy
    Over the years, Pakistan’s economy has demonstrated a remarkable growth rate, recovering from decades of sluggishness — though economists have been questioning its sustainability, expositing worst-case scenarios of crash landing and growth bubbling. The economic boom is attributive to the Musharraf government’s tentative alliance with the US in the “with us or against us” post-9/11 era, tactful renting out of its armed forces and frontiers to the counter-terrorism coalition as a front-line state against US$10 billion, and notably the privatization spree that came with structural and monetary reforms.
    With its resiliently growing economy, the demand for energy in Pakistan has surged by 10% annually, corresponding to an average 7% GDP growth since 2000. In 2006, Pakistan was the world’s 30th largest energy consumer. Demand is projected to grow by 3.5 times greater from the current level of consumption, 56 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent), to 198 Mtoe by 2030. However, the Pakistani government projects an annual increase in supply of 7.5%, corresponding to a GDP growth rate of about 7% — an over-optimistic projection. The supply growth rate was 6.8% during 2006.
    Pakistan is a gasoline-intensive energy economy. Oil and gas together make up 80% of energy demand. Coal, hydro and nuclear energy make up the remaining 20%. Likewise, indigenous resources substantiate 3/4 of requirements, falling short of supply by 25% annually. The supply lag is projected to increase to 62-64% by 2025-30, provided a growing demand. Until now, the deficit has mainly been in petroleum and marginally in coal sectors — although proven coal reserves in Pakistan are the world’s sixth largest.
    Pakistan is a net importer of petroleum. With 27 billion barrels (Bbbl) “balance recoverable” crude reserves, domestic production is less than 20% of demand – importing slightly more than 80%. Due to limited growth in the domestic supply line, imports are increasing. Petroleum imports are straining the economy dearly, which ranges between 25-33% of gross imports. This predicament doesn’t improve matters as demand is projected to double by 2015. In the foreseeable future, Pakistan’s dependency on external sources of oil will aggravate furthermore. This leaves it vulnerable to fluctuations in international supply line and price hikes, compounding the existing trade imbalance, budgetary deficit, inflationary tendencies and scaling-down of foreign exchange reserves.
    Having a perennial petroleum supply constraint, the energy economy is in transition, becoming gas-intensive. As a “bridge-fuel,” natural gas is bridging the energy shift from fossil to alternative fuels, because gas can be refined into pure hydrogen – seen as the fuel of future. The transition is no aberration whatsoever, but is a culmination of the gas development process that began in mid-1955 when the first gas-gusher was developed in Sui (the south-western Baluchistan province) — now the gas complex of the country. The progression has been swift since 2000. Year on year, consumption of gas has increased by about 10.4%, while petroleum consumption has decreased by an average 3.3%.
    The prize: Smoothing out the oil-based worst predicament and reducing the petroleum premium on economic growth. The ultimate payoff: energy security, given Pakistan’s reasonable gas reserves and geographic position as the pivot of the heart-and-rim-lands of the Eurasian energy El Dorado. Its domestic natural gas reserves are 32,928 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). But production is falling short of meeting the needs of growing consumption. Until recently, gas production was in surplus, and levelled off at around 55 Mtoe in 2005 with demand.
    The gas cornucopia is a passé. As projected, the share of gas in the energy mix will dip from 50% to 45% by 2030. Gas reserves are projected to peak by 2010, but overall demand will double. By then, Pakistan will become dependent on foreign sources. The available options are Central-West Asia, the Persian Gulf and Russia, provided pipelines are constructed and/or LNG terminals become operational.
    Reviewing the aforementioned supply-demand linear configurations, the economy seems to be in the first phase of energy insecurity, characterized by “demand shock.” It is still a long way from seeing its first “supply shock” — at worst an energy crisis — though it is facing an electrical power crisis. In any case, the economy carries an energy insecurity baggage: An “aggregate supply disruption.” It implies a supply cut-off or temporary discontinuity of supply that can result from war, acts of terrorism, political instability, or natural disaster. All these variables are quite frequent happenings in Pakistan, like insurgency in Baluchistan, militancy across the country, the seasonal torrential floods and the recent devastating earthquake. The inefficient supply cycle is critical.
    Lackadaisical energy structure and governance is also important. The demand shock partly results from the poor rate of energy production and the sluggish supply line. Energy security has been approached piecemeal without any direction. Under the aegis of the state, national monopolies were consolidated and private corporations marginalized, leaving no margin, or at most only a small one, for private entrepreneurship. Investment has been inexorably ill-advised. The economic nationalism and state entrepreneurship of the socialist, authoritarian Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto for instance has created a straightjacket energy economy.
    Even on regional turf, succeeding governments since the early 1990s have failed to contract energy supplies, particularly gas, by building trans-regional pipelines from the West (Iran and Qatar) and Central Asia. They have instead subjected pipeline development projects to geopolitical ambitions and anomalies — such as the offensive-in-defensive security approach towards Afghanistan and India, and China versus Western foreign policy. Its failure to vitalize energy security trans-regional linkages shows Pakistan’s strategic spin masters’ incongruous approach: failing abysmally to adapt to a new era, following the “end of history,” orienting geopolitics from confrontation to cooperation.
    Suggestive of President Pervez Musharraf’s energy security dictum on “war footing”, the government has chalked out an ambitious master plan — mixing hope and hype — outlining the contours and contents of energy security maximization.
    The Roadmap for Energy Security
    "The Gwadar sea port: With its resiliently growing economy, the demand for energy in Pakistan has surged annually by 10% corresponding to an average 7% GDP growth since 2000. In 2006, Pakistan was the world’s 30th largest energy consumer. Demand is projected to grow by 3.5 times greater from the current level of consumption (56-Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent)) to 198-Mtoe by 2030."
    Under the “Energy Security Plan 2005-2030,” a roadmap for energy security was formulated, conceptualizing broad-based structural, legal and financial measures. The state’s role has been oriented toward management, supervision and regulation. Authority of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources has been restructured; the Pakistan Alternative Energy Board (PAEB) and Oil and Gas Development Authority (OGRA) constituted the new sector managers. Energy improvisation options, objectives and targets were reassessed and revised. Diversified, sustainable, reasonable, cost-effective and continuous energy input became the vision. To avoid supply shock, energy output is projected from about 79 Mtoe by 2010 to around 361-Mtoe by 2030. An ambitious free market reform and privatization program has been implemented and is gradually beginning to dismantle the straightjacket. Until 1999, the state assumed commercial risks and many contingent liabilities in the form of business subsidies and price concessions. In 2003, the World Bank reported that measures like “competition in imports, fortnightly adjustment of prices consistent with international markets and significant progress in the privatization program” had been carried out. Domestic petroleum prices were adjusted to international market prices.
    A “natural gas allocation and management policy”, the first of its kind, was drafted to ensure efficient and optimum use of natural gas and effective demand management. Efficiency incentives have been introduced to reduce energy losses and increase the energy-to-GDP utilization ratio.
    To expand conventional energy, there is a focus on integrating up- and down-stream, on- and off-shore exploration and development of the 827,268 square kilometres of sedimentary area. Setting up coastal refineries, the building oil cities — or petroleum islands — are planned as part of the gasoline expansion agenda. By 2025, the government projects to add up to 1,450 Mcf gas output annually and plans to increase oil output 100,000 bbl a day by 2010. This will help reduce oil imports by 4.5 Mt per year, saving approximately US$650 million per year. The government projects investments of about US$16 billion in the sector. One major project is the development of a petrochemical complex at Gwadar, comprising refineries, depots and logistical infrastructure. China has invested US$12.5 billion in the project.
    The government’s LNG Policy 2006 stipulates increased gas supplies by importing liquefied natural gas, which will require the establishment of terminals. Two are planned by 2011 and 2013. Qatar is a potential LNG supplier. An international consortium of DANA Gas (UAE), Single Buoy Moorings (SBM) and Granada Group (USA) has signed up for building a terminal at Port Qasim parallel to Qatar’s Ras Laffan terminal. Its capacity is pegged at 3.5 Mt annually.
    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is another energy diversification option. The government is planning to uplift LPG production from the current 1,600 Mt per day, and is encouraging its use as a domestic and automobile gas. Its expansion is expected to help increase per capita energy consumption.
    The government is stoking a compressed natural gas (CNG) boom as well — which made up 1.2% of the gas share in the energy mix in 2004; it is expected to reach 6.3% by 2020. In August 2006, about 990 stations were funnelling CNG into one million vehicles, rendering Pakistan the world’s third largest CNG guzzler after Argentina and Brazil.
    The government is manoeuvring to diversify energy resources by improvising alternatives to gasoline. These are renewable sources such as wind, bio-fuels, solar and nuclear power, liquefied coal and other alternatives. In the long run, renewable energy is pegged at 10% of the mix, and the nuclear power target is set at 8,800 MW.
    The Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) is institutionalized to realize the “Manhattan” pursuit of alternatives to fossil fuels by engaging venture capitalists — but in Pakistan venture capitalism rarely flourishes given the political uncertainty, legal and institutional black hole, as well as the terrorism risk premium. To marshal the next generation of energy resources, it is seeking partnership with the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank, the US, and Australia. Federal Minister for Petroleum Amanullah Khan Jadoon stated that 48 companies are engaged in renewable energy generation, involving an investment of about US$8 billion.
    The energy security vision has an outward perspective, too. Economic managers look to the Eurasian geological, geopolitical landscape, conceptualizing collective energy security and lobbying for energy transmission axes from south to north, east to west. These are the Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI), Gulf-South Asian (Qatar-Pakistan), and Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan (TAP) gas pipelines, including the TAP’s Central-South Asian oil pipeline. All of these projects are either facing a quandary of geopolitics or are lost in a geopolitical quagmire. In June 2006, the optimism echoed in Pakistani government circles regarding these projects, projecting IPI and TAP pipelines to be flattened by 2015 and 2018-20 respectively.
    Retrospectively, Pakistan is revitalizing a geoeconomic, geopolitical agreement with China to maximize its energy security. The Gwadar deep-sea port realized with Chinese capital, erecting an outreach staging point for the Chinese navy, sees Pakistan as a geographic bridgehead of the Eurasian “heartland” and an anchor in one of the five “pearls” of the world’s oceans of “rimland.” The port has rendered Pakistan a hub of a transcontinental energy transit and trade — both overseas and overland. Beijing is proposing the 21st Century energy “Silk Route,” the Gwadar-Xinjiang pipeline, along the existing Himalayan Silk Road. Simultaneously, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization’s push for a trans-Eurasian “network of energy,” Asian Development Bank’s proposal for the trans-Asian pipeline, and the Sino-Indian proposed gas cartel, all leave the country in a favourable position as a geographic crux of any future energy axis. This leaves Pakistan prone to Western (primarily US) opposition to any axis of energy detrimental to Western interests in Eurasia. The US has been opposed to building the IPI, any OPEC-like energy consumer cartel involving India, China, Iran and Russia, because with such projects comes a grand geopolitical prize — energy, wealth and power. Whatever trans-regional realizations there will be, set aside the geopolitical and geo-strategic gains and the country’s energy economy will receive a buck out of the boost in a global energy economy.
    Conclusion: Achieving Maximum Energy Security
    "Set aside the geopolitical and geo-strategic gains Pakistan's energy economy will receive a buck out of the burst in a global energy economy"
    Pakistan’s energy supply-demand difference has widened over the past seven years, culminating into a “demand shock.” The difference stands at a ratio of 80:20 respectively, with three-fourths of total demand met through domestic resources. Given the element of aggregate supply disruption, an energy supply shock is looming on the horizon. Imports will account for the deficit. Import options are numerous, as Pakistan straddles the Eurasian energy El Dorado – like imports of CNG from Qatar, gasoline from Iran via roads and pipelines, from Central Asia and Russia by roads and pipelines, and oil from Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. It is safe to conclude here that the energy “crisis” in Pakistan is yet too far off and even too early to presume. Given a long history of “cyclical” growth pattern, the economy can dip anytime, followed by a flattening of energy consumption. Anticipating a robust economic growth rate, the government’s energy consumption forecasts range between 168-361 Mtoe in the long run. Many analysts describe a mere “wish-list.” Cost estimates for improvising the projected supplies are staggering: between US$37-40 billion, suggesting an annual investment of about US$1.5 billion. This is overly optimistic, given the country’s low rate of domestic savings. The way out is foreign direct investment, aid and borrowings. All these are unlikely due to the country’s political volatility, competitive disadvantage, economic uncertainty regarding investment payoffs, and dysfunctional legal regime.
    The pursuit of energy security is not a passing concern, rationalized on the pursuit of potential for economic growth, wealth and power — because a sustained energy supply sustains a vibrant economy. This comes from a well-guided, unrelenting pursuit of real conditions and scope for a diversified energy economy.
    The roadmap, designed to accomplish maximum energy security, anticipates a diversified energy. It promises more in terms of amplifying the conventional resource base, but augurs less well for development of the next generation of energy resources. The next structural shift is unlikely to be from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources and is more likely to be from gas to coal. At its best, renewable energy will remain marginal, with wind and solar energy providing energy to areas located far off the national supply grid. The ultimate alternative energy source could be nuclear, with Pakistan having the structure for energy generation through fission.
    Given its political, technological, and economic predicament, I recommend A Decalogue: Nine Steps Forward regarding Pakistan’s pursuit of energy security:
    Step.1: Keep on Searching. The Earth keeps in reserve, beneath and above the crust, an almost infinite reservoir of energy resources. The rub: untenable energy security comes out of a constant pursuit, because the more we look for energy resources, the more we find. Pakistan should keep floating contracts to “wildcatters” for exploring and extracting fuels from fossils and brewing ideas with “venture capitalists” to harness alternatives through the application of innovative technology and cutting edge research techniques.
    Step.2: Promoting an Indirect Search. This is led by the business for profit principle. By raising payoffs, international companies, which are on the hunt for making wealth out of energy resources, will venture into the underdeveloped sector. Investment and innovation of international energy majors will add value and valour to the pursuit. Thus, Pakistan should privatize and liberalize the sector and deregulate national oil equity holdings to a manageable extent. A strong private sector means robust search, more active exploration and optimal development.
    Step.3: Perfecting Rule of Law. Markets do not work in a legal vacuum. A sound legal system builds private sector confidence and ensures considerable returns on investment, thus providing a level playing field for competition and the containment of vested interests. As Phil Ginsberg propounds, the rule of law, transparency and good corporate governance are prerequisites for investment. Legal frameworks and institutional mechanisms, such as arbitration, dispute settlement, business insurance, negotiation and contractual sanctity, all smooth out complications encouraging foreign investors to seek business. The government needs to minimize legal and structural hiccups in starting and closing business, and standardize issuing tenders by making it open to competition rather than taking place in ministerial chambers. The government should employ creative business models and public policies conducive to its energy security vision, like giving commercial guarantees in exceptional cases but in a transparent manner. A perfect rule of law in Pakistan, that is, a statesmen’s housemaid, will have a paramount impact on the pursuit.
    Step.4: Political Stability. One cannot discredit political stability. As converged politics and economy may be, so are political stability and energy development. Constitution is the memento of political stability. A stable polity can best ensure private business and profit. On this front Pakistan has a lot to do. The polity is in a dismal state of governance. Regime changes are arbitrary through military interventions, interim measures, or executive decrees, but not elections—the bullet-and-buck, not the ballot principle, rules in Pakistan. It needs to institutionalize governments and policymaking and execution, providing safeguards for governments to complete tenures with succeeding governments keeping track with principal policies. The principle of continuation -- not aberration -- is necessary. Politics needs to be cleansed of militancy and fanaticism. The federation needs to be stabilized, which is faltering in the face of ethno-nationalism, through equal resource distribution. Baluchistan, the natural gas basket of Pakistan, should be pacified and recovered from the resource curse. But this is unlikely unless an adequate share in the natural wealth is materialized, effectively ending the sense of deprivation and ensuing structural development. Political tranquillity is the harbinger of sound energy economy. Without it, the energy security vision is void and the pursuit of it is merely dipping a toe in the water. Attaining political stability is all about reducing political premium.
    Step.5: Pushing the Demand Up. The best defence against insecurity is insecurity itself. The economic managers should push economic growth as much as possible, which in return will generate greater energy demand. As critical as the demand shock becomes, the supply improvisation gets robust. As a result, the previously non-conventional sources become economically feasible. As proportionate is the scale of demand to the breadth of GDP growth, so is the scope of investment in diversification of energy supply, development of new technologies and research and development of energy resources An energy supply restraint to a burgeoning economy implies a rigorous pursuit of alternatives. Pakistan can sustain the waves of a resilient economy through broad structural changes and reforms, adapting its economic governance to market variables and open and free trade regimes. This in turn will keep the energy boom-and-bust cycle intact to the best, leaping the energy economy forward into the next level of growth and development, generating capacity for energy improvisation.
    Step.6: Managing Consumption and Supply. Energy wasted is the energy lost. “The largest source of immediately available ‘new energy’ is the energy we waste,” writes Samuel W. Bodman, US Secretary of Energy, in Newsweek in December 2006.
    On the consumption side, energy efficiency is the best policy that improves energy utilization in production of a unit of GDP. Pakistan should reduce the volume of unproductive energy. The government needs to execute effective energy management policies and measures for boosting utilization. This requires frequent check and chase policies, forcing individuals and industries by law to adopt energy conservation technologies and techniques, making it more productive. This is called “energy elasticity”, which represents an energy-economic growth ratio. Put it this way: How many units of energy are consumed in producing a unit of GDP? Pakistan needs to improve this ratio.
    On the supply front, this means reduction in losses during extraction and refining, transmission and distribution. This will help energy security. Pakistan already has the base, an expanded transmission network, which needs improvement, a constant maintenance and sound operational techniques.
    Energy security in effect is about a positive change in human behavior, living standards and business modalities. Energy is as much about making lives comfortable and healthy as much as about making money. So, environmental safety measures must be applied so as to reduce CO2 emissions. The government should also take effective measures against the wasteful use of energy and improve conservation, increasing the utility of energy as much as supply. This works under the Joseph Schumpeter’s “creative destruction” principle where innovations destroy obsolete technologies and techniques.
    Step.7: Making It Collective. Mutualism is a best safeguard against total loss. This step is premised on mutual loss and mutual gain. It is basically a cohabitation of energy insecurity—together we overcome and sustain. The Energy Charter Treaty of 1994 is the way forward to forging a collective quest towards energy security. Pakistan became an observer to the charter in 2006. The charter does hold legal credence in Pakistan. Still, regionalism serves best fruition of energy security. Pakistan should also get real about trans-regional pipelines either as a transit-state, consumer, or both. Construction of tow pipelines, either of the proposed options, will help Pakistan streamline outlandish energy resources. It will never attain self-sufficiency, which is a chimera anyhow, so a pipeline will guarantee sufficient energy over a long period, especially gas to the gas-intensive energy economy. It should now re-orient its pipeline diplomacy to be more accommodative and make its geopolitics more adaptive to cushion the supply shocks well in time.
    Step.8: Nuclear Energy. Nuclear fission is quickly becoming a commercially and technologically viable source of generating energy. For Pakistan, which is facing a deadlock over the construction of mega hydel projects, nuclear energy is the best alternative to produce requisite power. In doing so, it should hold its nuclear program accountable to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), become party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and take reasonable measures for storing waste material safely, particularly in permanent geologic repositories, rather than dumping it in the open air. It should also act responsibly by subjecting its nuclear program to IAEA safeguards and the nuclear weapons and technology exporting group’s set of rules. Peaceful, civilian use of energy is getting credence as a viable source of energy.
    Step.9: Building Strategic Reserves. Finally there should be a contingency plan, too. As a safety valve against emergencies or energy crisis, strategic reserves should be developed, conserving resources sufficient to cater at least one month’s demand.


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    http://vimeo.com/68010803

    Tribute Video - General (R) Pervez Musharraf - Musical

    from Arshia Khan 7 months ago Not Yet Rated

    We have tried to use the Visual (Still/Moving) both to portray our sentiments for the Best President of Pakistan's History General (R) Syed Pervez Musharraf. Who ruled on Pakistan for 9 Years, specially at time when the Country was a Victim of Global Conspiracies, Hub of Geo-Political Activities, Confronting the Enemies of the State as well as acting as a Front Line Ally of United States of America against War on Terrorism. During the rule of General (R) Pervez Musharraf, Pakistan reached to the heights of Progress, It's Economic Indicators were the 3rd Best in the History of Pakistan. There was peace all over Pakistan, people had food on their Tables to feed, had electricity in their Cities, Villages for Domestic and Commercial both purposes. Living was cheap, consumer's buying power was strong. Education & Health Sectors were strictly focused and for that Governing Bodies like Higher Education Commission (HEC) was set that made our University Rankings improve globally and Pakistani University's Degree started being valued Internationally. During General (R) Pervez Musharraf Era, Telecommunication and Communication Infrastructure's wide Network was being set All Over Pakistan, licenses to International Mobile Operators were given, Roads were being built all over Pakistan even in Areas where there were no means of access in last 50 Years. General (R) Pervez Musharraf Introduced Local Government Bodies that ensured steady and rapid Resolution of People's Issues and Governance at Grass Root Level. General (R) Pervez Musharraf was the only Leader in Pakistan's 66 Years of History who gave it's Nation the Gift of " Freedom of Speech " before that there was no concept of People talking against it's own Government and sharing their concerns directly with the Government and Country's Top Leadership, all this happened because of the kindness and Democratic Nature of General (R) Pervez Musharraf. Licences to over 80 Media Organizations were being issued during General (R) Pervez Musharraf's Rule that ensured awareness among the masses, later due to few Sold Out Media Owners, Journalists, Anchors and Reporters this process of Crystal Clear reporting died. General (R) Pervez Musharraf ensured steady and speedy access to Justice during his rule and when the Judiciary stopped doing that and was found involved in corruption, he took a stand which was later hijacked by the Political Parties and used against the rule of General (R) Pervez Musharraf. General (R) Pervez Musharraf was of thought that no State or Anti-State Actor will be allowed to damage the National Interest or to provide any harm to the Ideology/Sovereignty of Pakistan and shall be dealt first with Dialogue if not then with Force. Example of that are Nawab Akbar Bugti of Balochistan who use to fire 500 Rockets every day on Sui Gas Pipe Lines in Balochistan, Lal Masjid Takfiri Terrorists who not only brought shame to Pakistan but also to Islam and affected Pakistan's Harmonious Image Internationally to improve what General (R) Pervez Musharraf worked really hard during his rule on Pakistan. General (R) Pervez Musharraf ensured no corruption can be done in any part of the Country and for that he appointed right people at the right job. Gave pay raise to Government Employees so that the Corruption can be eliminated from the Society and from Country in General. Pakistan's defense became stronger during the rule of General (R) Pervez Musharraf.


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Twelve Years Since Musharraf's Coup

    Musharraf's policies helped create 13 million new jobs, cut poverty in half and halved the country's total debt burden in the period from 2000 to 2007.

    Musharraf Government's Accomplishments:

    Thanks to the dynamic economy under President Musharraf's rule, Pakistan created more jobs, graduated more people from schools and colleges, built a larger middle class and lifted more people out of poverty as percentage of its population than India in the last decade. And Pakistan has done so in spite of the huge challenges posed by the war in Afghanistan and a very violent insurgency at home.

    The above summary is based on volumes of recently released reports and data on job creation, education, middle class size, public hygiene, poverty and hunger over the last decade that offer new surprising insights into the lives of ordinary people in two South Asian countries. It adds to my previous post on this blog titled "India and Pakistan Contrasted in 2010".



    The current PPP government summed up General Musharraf's accomplishments well when it signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the International Monetary Fund which said:

    "Pakistan's economy witnessed a major economic transformation in the last decade. The country's real GDP increased from $60 billion to $170 billion, with per capita income rising from under $500 to over $1000 during 2000-07". It further acknowledged that "the volume of international trade increased from $20 billion to nearly $60 billion. The improved macroeconomic performance enabled Pakistan to re-enter the international capital markets in the mid-2000s. Large capital inflows financed the current account deficit and contributed to an increase in gross official reserves to $14.3 billion at end-June 2007. Buoyant output growth, low inflation, and the government's social policies contributed to a reduction in poverty and improvement in many social indicators". (see MEFP, November 20, 2008, Para 1)



    Pre-Musharraf Decade:

    Before the coup, Pakistan was approaching the end of what is now remembered as The Lost Decade of the 1990s when PPP's Benazir Bhutto and PML's Nawaz Sharif played musical chairs, while the economy stagnated and the people suffered.

    Summing up the economic situation after the PPP-PML coalition took office in 2008, the Economist magazine in its June 12 issue summed it up as follows: "Before Mr Sharif was ousted in 1999, the two parties had presided over a decade of corruption and mismanagement. But since then, as the IMF remarked in a report in January, there has been a transformation. Pakistan attracted over $5 billion in foreign direct investment in the 2006-07 fiscal year, ten times the figure of 2000-01. The government's debt fell from 68% of GDP in 2003-04 to less than 55% in 2006-07, and its foreign-exchange reserves reached $16.4 billion as recently as in October." Please read "Pakistani Economy Returning to the Bad Old Days".




    Criticisms of Musharraf Government:

    Among the various criticisms of Musharraf's rule, there are two that particularly stand out:

    1. Musharraf's Support For US War on Terror:

    Musharraf has been heavily criticized for siding with the United States and angering the Taliban and their sympathizers who have been attacking and terrorizing Pakistani state and its people. As mightily as Pakistan has suffered at the hands of the Taliban and al Qaeda terrorists and their affiliates since 911, I do believe that Pakistanis would have been much worse off if Musharraf had not sided with the United States when asked after the worst terror attacks on US mainland. The consequences of refusal to help the US would have ranged from direct and massive NATO attack (probably with Indian help) on Pakistan to crippling sanctions and complete political and diplomatic isolation on the world stage.



    2. Musharraf's Failure to Increase Energy Supply:

    There was double digit annual growth in industrial production in Pakistan from 2000-2007, and the rising incomes and standards of living put pressure on energy supplies, particularly electricity. However, the situation was being managed to assure only short interruptions in supply to maintain and ration insufficient power generation capacity. For example, in June 2007, the power cuts in Pakistan lasted no more than 3 or 4 hours a day. Today, the situation is far worse with 10-12 hrs or more of load shedding every day, in spite of an stagnant economy.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that it is the total absence of financial management, not just insufficient installed generating capacity, that is the crux of the worsening energy problems in Pakistan.

    Pakistan's Exports. Source: IndexMundi

    Riots have broken out as the Punjab, Pakistan's largest province, finds itself in the midst of the worst ever electricity crisis in the nation's history. The power shortfall has reached almost 9000 megawatts across the country, over half of the total demand of about 17000 MW.

    Pakistan Tractor Sales Source: Trading Economics


    Many public and private power producers have shut down their power plants due to the suspension of fuel supply by Pakistan State Oil, the state-owned oil company, according to a report in the Express Tribune. The oil company is demanding payment of Rs. 155 billion in outstanding dues from the power producers before resuming fuel supply.

    Summary:

    Musharraf era was the best era in terms of improving the lives of the ordinary folks in Pakistan since the Ayub-era in the 1960s. Strong economy helped create millions of new jobs and lifted millions out of poverty. Social indicators improved significantly and the the size of the middle class grew dramatically. So why is it that there are so many people who continue to condemn Musharraf?

    I think Musharraf's critics can be divided in two categories:

    1. Self-serving politicians and their supporters under their patronage who deny Musharraf's accomplishments because any admission of reality would be seen as a confession of their own incompetence.

    2. Those who acknowledge Musharraf's economic legacy but would still prefer elected civilian government for ideological reasons. They are perfectly willing to sacrifice economic growth in the hope of hastening a better democratic future for Pakistan.



    I, too, want to see a democratic Pakistan, but I strongly disagree with both the above categories. In my view, the best way to usher in genuine and successful democratic rule in any developing nation is to first unleash East and South East Asian style rapid economic growth and human development which were brought about by dictators like General Park Chung-hee of South Korea, Mahathir Mohammad of Malaysia and General Suharto of Indonesia. Each of these autocrats served long enough to bring their nations in to the modern industrial era and created a large urban middle class which is now sustaining democratic rule. Until such time as Pakistan has a well educated and politically empowered urban middle class making up more than half of its population, the electoral process will continue to result in patronage-based feudal democracy of the kind that exists today.


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era



    Musharraf Era: Pakistan Flourishes

    By afreenbaig, april. 2010 | 14 Pages (3445 Words) | 618 Views
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    Compiled By: Mirza Rohail B

    ©Our leader – Musharraf
    http://presidentmusharraf.wordpress.com/

    All this is all the more amazing when one considers that just six years ago, Pakistan was on the verge of bankruptcy, with only a little more than $1bn in foreign exchange reserves and its stock market teetering at 1,000 points (worth $5 billion only) and foreign debt servicing at 65% of GDP. Our exports were at a pitiful $7.5 billion.

    The once ever-declining rupee stood stable at around 60-61 to a dollar since Musharraf took over. Of the 184 member countries of the IMF, Pakistan’s rate of economic growth 7% is one of the best in the world. The Karachi stock market is now above 13,000 points and worth around $65 billion. Now foreign debt servicing has lowered to become 28%. Our exports increased to become $18 billion.

    1. Pakistan economy is among the fastest growing economies in the world as its economy has reached the size of $170 billion from a mere $70 billion in 1999. Pakistan attracted a record FDI of $8.6 billion in 2007-08.

    2. 2007: National revenues had swelled from Rs 308 billion during 1988-99 to around Rs 800bn in 2007; and FBR estimates now 2.8 million Income Tax payers.

    Year Total CBR Direct Indirect Custom Sales Central excise

    1998-99 308.5bn 110.4bn 198.1bn 65.3bn 72bn 60.8bn

    2005-06 712.5bn 224.6bn 487.9bn 138.2bn 294.6bn 55bn

    2008-09 810.3bn 305bn – 105.3bn 319.3bn 80.5bn (2008-09 Progressive)

    3. Public sector development program (PSDP) has also grown from Rs 80 billion in 1999; to Rs 520 billion in 2007 and increased further to Rs 549.7 billion in 2008.

    4. FACT: The rate of growth in Pakistan Large Scale Manufacturing (LSM) is at a 30-year high. Construction activity is at a 17-year high.

    LSM: 1999-00 was 1.5% and 2004-05 was 19.9% and 2006-07 was 8.6% and 2007-8 is 5%..


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Pervez Musharraf


    Personal Net Worth: $400,000 "Estimated"
    About

    General (ret) Pervez Musharraf is a Pakistani politician and military figure who served as the tenth President of Pakistan (2001–2008) and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army (1998–2007).

    He took power on 12 October 1999, following a nonviolent military coup d'état and subsequent ouster of the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. The military-led government stated its intention to restructure the political, economic and electoral systems. On May 12, 2000, Pakistan's 12 member Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted Musharraf executive and legislative authority for 3 years from the coup date endorsing his governance.

    On 18 August 2008, Pervez Musharraf resigned from the post of President under impeachment pressure from the coalition government. He was succeeded on 6 September 2008 by Asif Ali Zardari duly elected as Pakistan's 11th President.


    Early life

    Pervez Musharraf was born on August 11, 1943 in Nehar Wali Haveli meaning "House Next to the Canal", situated in Kacha Saad Ullah Mohallah, Daryaganj in Delhi, British India, and stems from a family of government servants. After Musharraf's grandfather, Qazi Mohtashimuddin, retired as the Deputy Collector of Revenue based in Delhi, he acquired Neharwali Haveli in the old walled city of Delhi where Musharraf was born.

    The haveli, with its high roofs and arches, and is believed to have been previously the home of a "Wazir" (Minister) in the court of Bahadur Shah Zafar — the last Mughal emperor of the 19th century.

    After independence of Pakistan, Musharraf's family migrated to Pakistan where his father, Syed Musharraf Uddin — a graduate of Aligarh University — joined the Pakistan Foreign Office as an Accountant, and ultimately retired as a Director.

    Musharraf's mother, Zarin, received her master's degree from the University of Lucknow in 1944 and supplemented the recently immigrated family's income to support the education of her children. She recently retired from a United Nations agency in Islamabad.

    He revealed in his memoirs that he was critically injured after falling from a mango tree as a teenager, and he considers this his first direct experience with death.

    Musharraf attended Saint Patrick's School, Karachi, graduating in 1958, later attending Forman Christian College in Lahore and is said to have been good in mathematics during his academic life.

    Musharraf is married to Sehba, who is from Okara. They have a son, Bilal, who was a graduate student at Stanford University and currently works in Silicon Valley, and a daughter, Ayla Raza,a graduate ofNational College of Arts and works as an architect in Karachi.


    Military career

    In 1961, he entered the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul, graduating 11th in his class. He was commissioned on April 19, 1964 in the Artillery Regiment. Later he joined the Special Services Group and was posted to Field Artillery Regiments. A graduate of the Command and Staff College, Quetta, and the National Defence College, Rawalpindi, Musharraf is also a graduate of the Royal College of Defence Studies of the United Kingdom. Musharraf revealed in his memoirs that in 1965 he was charged with taking unauthorized leave and was about to be court-martialed for it, but was excused due to the war with India.

    Indo-Pakistani wars

    Musharraf participated in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 16 (SP) Field Artillery Regiment. His regiment saw action as part of the First Armoured Division’s offensive in the Khemkaran sector; as part of a major offensive against the Indian Army, the Pakistani army advanced 15 miles (24 km) into India and it was in the town of Khem Karan that Musharraf wrote his first letter to his mother during the war "proudly saying that I was writing from India". By all accounts the vital advance failed at the Battle of Asal Uttar, as Pakistan lost a golden opportunity to make major strategic gains; this was a turning point in the war. His regiment was later moved to the Lahore front, which was threatened by the Indian Army. According to Musharraf, "Having stabilized the Lahore front, we were ordered to move again to the Sialkot front. This was where the famous tank battles of Chawinda were fought. At the end of the war this sector was to become a graveyard of Indian tanks.". During the war Musharraf was noted for sticking to his post under shellfire. Towards the end of the war an Indian shell hit one of the artillery guns of Musharraf's unit and set it on fire. According to Musharraf, whilst everyone else took cover, he, followed by a soldier, "dashed to the blazing gun" and removed the "hot shells" one by one and "threw them to safety on the ground". For this he received an award for gallantry and was promoted to the rank of captain.

    Later, in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, he served as a Company Commander in the Special Service Group (SSG) Commando Battalion. Originally scheduled to be flown to East Pakistan along with other SSG troops, he was redeployed in Punjab as war broke out and all flights over India were cancelled. He later admitted that he "broke down and wept" when he heard the "disgusting" news of Pakistan's unconditional surrender to India. Later he commanded regiments of artillery, an Artillery Brigadeand then an infantry division. In September 1987, he was instrumental in giving orders to a newly formed SSG at Khapalu base (Kashmir), which launched an assault and successfully captured two intermediate posts, Bilafond La in Siachen Glacier, before being pushed back.

    On promotion to the rank of Major General on 15 January 1991, he was assigned the command of an infantry Division. Later, on promotion to Lieutenant General on 21 October 1995 he took over command of 1 Corps, the elite strike corps. In 1998, following the resignation of General Jehangir Karamat, he was personally promoted over other senior officers by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and took over as the Army Chief of Staff and Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.

    Role in Kargil Conflict

    From May to July 1999, Pakistan and India were involved in the Kargil Conflict, an armed conflict between the two countries in the Kargil district of Kashmir. It was planned and executed during General Musharraf's term as the Pakistani Army Chief of Staff under Prime Minister Sharif.

    Sharif has claimed that Musharraf was solely responsible for the Kargil attacks. On the other hand, Musharraf claims that the decision was made by Sharif, who was under United States pressure. Ex-CENTCOM Commander Anthony Zinni, and Sharif, has stated that Musharraf requested that the Prime Minister withdraw Pakistani troops from Kashmir.

    Casualties on both sides had been particularly heavy in Kargil. Musharraf had good relations with Jehangir Karamat from whom he took over the command. Soon after the coup, one of the first to be appointed as minister was journalist Maleeha Lodhi who was close to Jehangir Karamat. Also recruited was Shaukat Aziz (who served as the country's Prime Minister later) who volunteered to improve the economy. Western banks rescheduled Pakistani loans, which had been subjected to economic sanctions since Pakistan conducted atomic testing.

    Pervez Musharraf resigned from the Army on 28 November 2007 in an attempt to regularize his position as President.


    Presidency

    Military coup d'état Musharraf became de facto Head of Government (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive powers) of Pakistan following a bloodless coup d'état on 12 October 1999. That day, Sharif attempted to dismiss Musharraf and install Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) Director Ziauddin Butt in his place. Musharraf, who was out of the country, boarded a commercial airliner to return to Pakistan. Senior army generals refused to accept Musharraf's dismissal, which was deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

    Sharif ordered the Karachi airport closed to prevent the landing of the airliner, which then circled the skies over Karachi. In the coup, the Generals ousted Sharif's administration and took over the airport. The plane landed, allegedly with only a few minutes of fuel to spare, and Musharraf assumed control of the government. Sharif was put under house arrest and later exiled to Saudi Arabia, where he resided until he returned again to Pakistan on 25 November 2007.

    He and other leaders have subsequently been prevented from entering Pakistan. Although the disagreement between Musharraf and Sharif started from the day Nawaz Sharif ordered withdrawal of troops from Kargil it reportedly centred around the Prime Minister's desire to find a diplomatic resolution to the conflict with India in the Kashmir region.

    The existing President of Pakistan, Rafiq Tarar, remained in office until June 2001. Musharraf formally appointed himself President on 20 June 2001, just days before his scheduled visit to Agra for talks with India.

    Foreign policy

    Support for the War on Terror

    Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Musharraf sided with the United States against the Taliban government in Afghanistan after an ultimatum by U.S. President George W. Bush. Musharraf agreed to give the United States the use of three airbases for Operation Enduring Freedom. United States Secretary of State Colin Powell and other Administration officials met with Musharraf. On 19 September 2001, Musharraf addressed the people of Pakistan and stated that, while he opposed military tactics against the Taliban, Pakistan risked being endangered by an alliance of India and the U.S. if it did not cooperate. In 2006, Musharraf testified that this stance was pressured by threats from the U.S., and revealed in his memoirs that he had "war-gamed" the United States as an adversary and decided that it would end in a loss for Pakistan.

    The leadership in Pakistan war-gamed the USA and NATO as an enemy and realized that it was worthless committing suicide over the obstinate Taliban. Pakistan's stagnated economy had only slightly started recovering, after being put in the HIPCs category, by the IMF and World Bank, as one of the highest indebted poor countries. Galvanizing the whole nation into agreeing to fight the USA and NATO was another impossible task. Indian eagerness to join the War on Terror was an alarming condition that Pakistan could not have overlooked. Indian jets flying over Pakistan's space, with the strategic assets lying below, were a suicidal recipe. An accidental Indian bomb dropped on the Kahuta plant would have created disaster. Pakistan drew up plans to secure its NWFP border along Afghanistan. Around 80,000 troops were placed to patrol and were assigned specific targets.

    Relations with India

    Musharraf was Chief of Army Staff at the time of Mujahideen incursions into India from Pakistan-administered Kashmir in the summer of 1999. Although Pakistan claimed that these were Kashmiri freedom fighters based in Indian-controlled Kashmir, later developments showed that they were Pakistani paramilitary soldiers backing up the separatists on the mountain top. After fierce fighting, Pakistani soldiers were pulled back due to pressure from the international community.

    However, in Battle Ready, a book co-authored by ex-CENTCOM Commander in Chief Anthony Zinni and novelist Tom Clancy, the former alleges that Musharraf was the one who pushed Sharif to withdraw the Pakistani troops after being caught in a losing scenario. According to an ex-official of the Musharraf government, Hassan Abbas, Musharraf planned the whole operation and sold the idea to Sharif. The view that Musharraf wanted to attempt the Kargil infiltrations much earlier was also revealed by Bhutto in an interview with a leading daily newspaper, where he had supposedly boasted that "he would hoist the flag of Pakistan atop the Srinagar Assembly" if his plan was executed. Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (PML(N)), a leading Pakistan party added that Musharraf had planned the Kargil intrusions but panicked when the conflict broke out with India and decided to alert Sharif. Since the Kargil incident occurred just after the Lahore Peace Summit earlier that year, Musharraf is often regarded with scepticism in India.

    In the middle of 2004, Musharraf began a series of talks with India to solve the Kashmir dispute. Both leaders also discussed the following issues: Wullar Barrage and Kishangaga power project, Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River being built by India inJammu and Kashmir, disputed Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch, Siachin glacier, issues of Gurdaspur and Ferozepur's status, minority rights, Indian contentions that Pakistan is sponsoring "cross-border" terrorism.

    In 2007, Musharraf stated, after a meeting with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, that the current push to normalize relations between the two states is "irreversible."

    2001 Gujarat Earthqauke of India

    Pakistan President Pervez Mushrraf sent a plane load of relief supplies to India from Islamabad to Ahmedabad[26] that carried 200 tents and more than 2,000 blankets. Furthermore, the President called Indian PM to express his sympathy over the loss from the earthquake.

    Richard Armitage comments

    During a 24 September 2006 interview with Steve Kroft on 60 Minutes, Musharraf said that then-U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage had called Musharraf's intelligence director shortly following the 9/11 attacks and threatened military action if Pakistan did not support the U.S.-led "war on terror". According to Musharraf, Armitage warned: "Be prepared to be bombed. Be prepared to go back to the Stone Age." Furthermore, during an interview with Jon Stewart of The Daily Show on 26 September 2006, Musharraf stated that then-Secretary of State Colin Powell also contacted him with a similar message: "You are with us or against us." Musharraf refused to elaborate further, citing the then-upcoming release of his book, In the Line of Fire: A Memoir (ISBN 0-7432-8344-9). Armitage has, however, categorically denied that he had used such harsh words to threaten Pakistan, saying instead that on 12 September 2001 he had told Pakistan's top intelligence official that Pakistan would have to decide whether it was with or against the U.S. in its efforts against al-Qaida and the Taliban. In Armitage's words, "It would be completely out of character for me to threaten the use of military force when I was not authorized to do so. I don't command aircraft and could not make good on such a threat." In a 22 September 2006 joint news conference with Musharraf, U.S. President George W. Bush said, "I don't know of any conversation that was reported in the newspaper like that."

    Nuclear proliferation

    As President, General Musharraf had promoted Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan as his "Science Advisor to the President". One of the most widely-reported controversies during Musharraf's administration arose as a consequence of the disclosure of nuclear proliferation by Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, the metallurgical engineer known as the father of Pakistan's Gas-centrifuge program. Musharraf has denied knowledge of or participation by Pakistan's government or army in this proliferation and has faced bitter domestic criticism for singularly vilifying Khan, a former national hero. Khan has been pardoned in exchange for cooperation in the investigation, but is still under house arrest. After Musharraf's resignation, dr. Khan was released from House arrest by the executive order of Supreme Court of Pakistan.

    Space Program

    Musharraf was eager for the Pakistan to lead the way in the space race. He was one of the few leaders of Pakistan to authorized space-development projects in Pakistan. Musharraf also unfroze Pakistan's Space program which was last frozen in 1996. In 1999, when Dr. A. Q. Khan met with him, he quickly authorized SUPARCO to developed its first domestically build earth observational satellite. Musharraf also established a separated fund for SUPARCO to developed its high-powered HRLV, SLV, PSLVprojects. According to the media, all these project will be launch from Pakistan in 2012, but the SUPARCO has not confirmed yet. In 2005, President Musharraf outlined his vision for SUPARCO by laying down a clearly defined agenda for the national space agency to pursue and deliver in minimum time. Musharraf had made it clear that:

    "Pakistan would need to catch up to the world space leaders and make up for lost time and neglect in the past and future".

    Musharraf had authorised renewed research and development on an indigenous launch capability that would be able to put into orbit a domestically built satellite, Paksat-1R. In his [Musharraf] book, In the Line of Fire: A Memoir, Musharraf has expressed his desired that "SUPARCO has suffered severe economic and global sanctions. Musharraf has expressed his desired that "SUPARCO has suffered severe economic and global sanctions but in future Pakistan will send its satellites from its soil".

    Relations with China

    Musharraf accused Western leaders and media of politicizing the 2008 Summer Olympics by criticizing China's human rights record and its policy in Tibet. He also said he would cooperate with China, which is a historical ally to Pakistan, in the fight against terrorism.

    President Musharraf was internally Pro-China and kept the strategic relations intact. During President Musharraf’s government, China for the first time allowed a Pakistani president access to one of its most advanced and secret military research facilities.

    Relations with Saudi Arabia

    Pakistan’s relationship with Saudi Arabia continues to grow. After his coup in October 1999, Riyadh was the first foreign capital General Pervez Musharraf visited, to signify the importance he gave to PAK-Saudi relations.

    King Abdullah's first visit to Pakistan in 2006 as ruler, he was welcomed at the airport by both President Pervez Musharraf and Prime Minister Shawkat Aziz, a reflection of the strong ties between the two nations. Hundreds of thousands of Pakistanis lined the road from the airport to welcome the Saudi King. President Musharraf and the Saudi King, take a common stand on the war on terror and expanding trade ties, as well as international issues such as Kashmir, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Iraq, Iran’s nuclear program, Afghanistan and reform of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). President Musharraf honored King Abdullah by conferring upon him Pakistan’s highest civil award, Nishan-e-Pakistan, in a colorful investiture ceremony at the presidential palace.

    On 21 Jan 2007, the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah conferred the King Abdul Aziz Medallion, the Kingdom’s top honor, on Pakistani President Gen. Pervez Musharraf during a ceremony at his palace in Riyadh. The first Pakistani leader ever to receive this highest Saudi honor.

    Musharraf nominated for 2004 Nobel Peace Prize

    In 2004, the President of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf was nominated in the final list of hopefuls for that year's prestigious Nobel Peace Prize, which totals 194 candidates, as annonced by the Nobel Institute. It is not the very first time that a suggestion of awarding the Noble Peace Prize to President Musharraf has been made from such an important quarter but seeing the very clear role being played by the Pakistani President in fighting terrorism against Al Qaeda and other extremist groups within Pakistan, several important figures and organisations have also begun supporting General Musharraf as the strongest entrant for the Noble Peace Prize.

    Domestic issues

    2002 elections

    Shortly after Musharraf's takeover, several people filed court petitions challenging his assumption of power. However, he got The Oath of Judges Order 2000 issued. It required the judges to take a fresh oath of office swearing allegiance to military rule and to state they would make no decisions against the military. Many judges refused and resigned in protest. On 12 May 2000, the Supreme Court asked Musharraf to hold national elections by 12 October 2002; elections for local governments took place in 2001.

    In an attempt to legitimize his presidency and assure its continuance after the approaching restoration of democracy, he held a referendum on 30 April 2002 to extend his term to five years after the October elections. The voter turnout was 80% by most estimates, amidst claims of irregularities. A few weeks later, Musharraf went on TV and apologized to the nation for "irregularities" in the referendum.

    In August 2002, he passed the Legal Framework Order which provided for the general elections of 2002 and the revival of the 1973 Constitution, but added numerous amendments to the Constitution. The Supreme Court rejected part of the Order.

    General elections were held in October 2002 and a plurality of the seats in the Parliament was won by the Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML-Q), a pro-Musharraf party. It formed a majority coalition with independents and allies such as the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM). However, parties opposed to Musharraf effectively paralysed the National Assembly for over a year. The following month, Musharraf handed over certain powers to the newly elected Parliament. The National Assembly elected Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali as Prime Minister, who in turn appointed his own cabinet.

    In December 2003, Musharraf made a deal with Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, a six-member coalition of Islamic parties, agreeing to leave the army by 31 December 2004. With that party's support, pro-Musharraf legislators were able to muster the two-thirdssupermajority required to pass the Seventeenth Amendment, which retroactively legalized Musharraf's 1999 coup and many of his decrees. In late 2004, Musharraf went back on his agreement with the MMA and pro-Musharraf legislators in the Parliament passed a bill allowing Musharraf to keep both offices. Constitution Article 63 clause (1) paragraph (d), read with proviso to Article 41 clause (7) paragraph (b), allows the President to hold dual office.

    Denunciation of extremism

    On 12 January 2002, Musharraf gave a landmark speech against Islamic extremism, a few months after September 11. He unequivocally condemned all acts of terrorism and pledged to combat Islamic extremism and lawlessness within Pakistan itself. He vowed, the government was committed to root out extremism and made it clear that the banned militant organizations would not be allowed to resurface under any new name.He stressed, "the recent decision to ban extremist groups promoting militancy was taken in the national interest after thorough consultations. It was not taken under any foreign influence". In 2002, the Musharraf-led government, took a firm stand against the jihadi organizations and groups promoting extremism, and arrested Maulana Masood Azhar, head of the Jaish-i-Mohammad, and Hafiz Saeed, chief of the Lashkar-i-Taiba, and took dozens of activists into custody. An official ban was imposed on the groups on January 12.

    At the same time as banning foreign funding of Islamic educational institutions, he made it compulsory for them to teach a whole host of additional subjects such as computing. This meant that many had to close due to the halt of funds from Pakistanis working abroad resulting in not being able to teach the additional subjects that he had made compulsory. Musharraf also instituted prohibitions on foreign students' access to studying Islam within Pakistan, an effort which began as an outright ban but was later reduced to restrictions on obtaining visas.

    In 2004, he proposed "Enlightened Moderation" as an alternative to Islamic fundamentalism. On 18 September 2005, Musharraf made a historic speech before a broad based audience of Jewish leadership, sponsored by the American Jewish Congress's Council for World Jewry, in New York City. In the speech, he denounced terrorism and opened the door to relationships between Pakistan and Israel, as well as between the Muslim world and Jews worldwide. He was widely criticized by Middle EasternArab leaders and Muslim clerics, but was met with some praise among Jewish leadership.

    On 13 September 2007, 300 Pakistani troops were captured by Islamic militants. Terrorists then bombed Musharraf's own SSG unit, killing 16, and launched rocket attacks in the North-West Frontier province and Tribal areas.

    Musharraf has been met by criticism. Zahid Hussain, Pakistan's correspondent for the Times of London, the Wall Street Journal, and Newsweek and political correspondent for the Karachi-based monthly Newsline said in 2007 that despite Musharraf delivering to the United States, where Al Qaeda was concerned, he did in fact do nothing to eliminate extremism from the Pakistani society or to curb the activities of the Taliban. This is very natural, he said, because since 1994 Pakistan has very actively backed the Taliban and the military itself has Taliban sympathizers. Hussain also said that Musharraf was also criticized for his contradictory statements and, through which he sought to get support from both the Western allies as well as the islamist militants. Musharraf also "never took any action against those madrassas that preached hatred" and have been involved in fueling extremism. Hussain said that Musharraf did talk a lot about it and whenever there was pressure from abroad, he would announce some measures but these were not followed by any implementation. In other words, Hussain said, he failed to understand that one cannot develop a moderate Muslim society unless the root cause of extremism is completely eliminated.

    Assassination attempts

    In 2000 Kamram Atif, allegedly a member of Harkat-ul Mujahideen al-Alami, tried to assassinate Musharraf. Atif was sentenced to death in 2006 by an Anti Terrorism Court.

    On 14 December 2003, Musharraf survived an assassination attempt when a powerful bomb went off minutes after his highly-guarded convoy crossed a bridge in Rawalpindi. It was the third such attempt during his four-year rule. On 25 December 2003, twosuicide bombers tried to assassinate Musharraf, but their car bombs failed to kill him; 16 others nearby died instead.[45] Musharraf escaped with only a cracked windscreen on his car. Militant Amjad Farooqi was apparently suspected of being the mastermind behind these attempts, and was killed by Pakistani forces in 2004 after an extensive manhunt.

    On 6 July 2007, there was another attempted assassination, when an unknown group fired a 7.62 submachine gun at Musharraf's plane as it took off from a runway in Rawalpindi. Security also recovered 2 anti-aircraft guns, from which no shots had been fired. On 17 July 2007, Pakistani police detained 39 people in relation to the attempted assassination of Musharraf. They were detained at an undisclosed location by a joint team of Punjab Police, the Federal Investigation Agency and other Pakistani intelligence agencies.

    On 8 October 2007, a military helicopter escorting President Musharraf, on his visit to the earthquake-affected areas on its second anniversary, crashed near Muzaffarabad, killing four people, including a brigadier. The Puma helicopter crashed at Majohi near Garhi Dupatta in Azad Kashmir at 11:15 am due to technical fault. Those killed included Brigadier Zahoor Ahmed, Naik Ajmal, Sepoy Rashid and PTV cameraman Muhammad Farooq, while President’s Media Advisor Maj Gen (R) Rashid Qureshi sustained injuries. Twelve people were on board the helicopter.

    2004 confidence vote

    PML-Q led government with the help of the religious parties the MMA, secured 2/3 majority in National assembly and Senate and constitionally validated Musharraf's election.

    On 1 January 2004 Musharraf had won a confidence vote in the Electoral College of Pakistan, consisting of both houses of Parliament and the four provincial assemblies. Musharraf received 658 out of 1170 votes, a 56% majority, but many opposition and Islamic members of parliament walked out to protest the vote. As a result of this vote, according to Article 41(8) of the Constitution of Pakistan, Musharraf was "deemed to be elected" to the office of President. His term was extended to 2007.

    Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali resigned on 26 June 2004, after losing the support of the PML(Q). His resignation was at least partly due to his public differences with the party chairman Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain, and was rumoured to have happened at Musharraf's command, although neither man has confirmed this. Jamali had been appointed with the support of Musharraf's and the pro-Musharraf PML(Q). Most PML(Q) parliamentarians formerly belonged to the Pakistan Muslim League party led by Sharif, and most ministers of the cabinet were formerly senior members of other parties, joining the PML(Q) after the elections upon being offered powerful offices. It is believed that Musharraf replaced Jamali due to his poor performance and in his place Musharraf nominated Shaukat Aziz, the minister for finance and a former employee of Citibank and head of Citibank Private Banking as the new prime minister.

    Economy

    In 1999, under Nawaz Sharif, Revenue generation of around Rs.308 billion could not meet the growing expenditure requirements; with only an average of Rs.80 billion being spent on Public sector development programs (PSDP) annually, and no visible project to boast about. From this Rs.308 billion around 65% was being utilized for debt servicing. In 1988 Pakistan’s foreign debt was $18 billion, but at the end of 1999 it had accumulated to become $38 billion. A 100% increased burden on the already crippled economy. Public and external debt exceeded 300% of Foreign exchange earnings.

    Musharraf then appointed Shaukat Aziz, a former Citibank executive, as finance minister. Profile: Shaukat Aziz - BBC News

     Pakistan’s economy grew by 100% — to become $ 160 billion
     Revenue grew by 100% — to become $ 11.4 billion
     Per Capita income grew by 100% — to become $ 925
     Foreign Reserves grew by 500% — to become $ 17 billion
     Exports grew by 100% — to become $ 18.5 billion
     Textile exports grew by 100% — to become $ 11.2 billion
     Karachi Stock Exchange grew by 500% — to become $ 75 billion
     Foreign Direct Investment grew by 500% — to become $ 8.4 billion
     Annual Debt servicing decreased by 35% — to become 26%
     Poverty decreased by 10% — to become 24%
     Literacy ratio grew by 10% — to become 54%
     Public development Funds grew by 100% — to become Rs 520 billion
    The vision and policies helped Pakistan come out of the list of Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) while setting it on path of prosperity, growth and economic reforms. The world financial institutions like the World Bank and IMFand ADBhave been praising Pakistan for its reforms, fiscal policies and macro-economic achievements.

    Education

    Under Musharraf's tenure, Pakistan saw exceptional setup of 47 universities, including Virtual University, under the supervision of Higher Education Commission. Most of the universities were of international standards.

    Pakistan now has a total of 245,682 educational institutions in all categories, including 164,579 (i.e. 67%) in the public sector and 81,103 (i.e. 100%) in the private sector, reports the National Education Census (NEC-2005). The census — jointly conducted by the Ministry of Education, the Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) and the Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS) — reveals that the number of private-sector institutions has increased from 36,096 in 1999-2000 to 81,103 in 2005, i.e. by 100%; 45,007 Educational Institutions have increased in Musharraf Era.

    Women's Rights

    The National Assembly voted in favor of the “Women's Protection Bill” on 15 November 2006 and the Senate approved it on 23 November 2006. President General Pervez Musharraf signed into law the “Women's Protection Bill”, on 1 December 2006. The bill places rape laws under the penal code and allegedly does away with harsh conditions that previously required victims to produce four male witnesses and exposed the victims to prosecution for adultery, if they were unable to prove the crime. However, the Women's Protection bill has been criticized heavily by many for paying continued lip service and failing to address the actual problem by its' roots: repealing the Hudood Ordinance. In this context, Musharraf has also been criticized by women and human rights activists for not following up his words by action. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) said that "The so-called Women's Protection Bill is a farcical attempt at making Hudood Ordinances palatable" outlining the issues of the bill and the continued impact on women.

    His government increased reserved seats for women in assemblies, to increase women's representation and make their presence more effective. Compared with 1988 seats in the National Assembly were increased from 20 to 60. In provincial assemblies 128 seats were reserved for women. This situation has brought out increase participation of women for 1988 and 2008 elections.

    Rape victims and comments

    In March 2005, a couple of months after the rape of a Pakistani physician, Dr. Shazia Khalid, working on a government gas plant in the remote Baluchistan province, Musharraf was criticised for pronouncing, Captain Hammad, a fellow military man and the accused in the case, innocent before the judicial enquiry was completed. Following the rape, riots erupted in the local Bugti clan of the province, where the rape took place. They saw a rape in their heartland as being a breach of their code of honour and attacked the gas plant. In an uncomprimising response Musharraf sent tanks, helicopters and an extra 4,500 soldiers to guard the installation. If the tribesmen failed to stop shooting, he warned on television, "they will not know what hit them".Shazia was later forced and threatened by the government to leave the country.

    In an interview to the Washington Post in September 2005 Musharraf said that Pakistani women, who were the victims of rape, treated rape as a "moneymaking concern" and were only interested in the publicity in order to make money and get a Canadian visa. He subsequently denied making these comments, but the Washington Post made available an audio recording of the interview, in which Musharraf could be heard making the quoted remarks. Musharraf also denied Mukhtaran Mai, a Pakistani rape victim, the right to travel abroad, until pressured by US State Department. The remarks made by Musharraf sparked outrage and protests both internationally and in Pakistan by various groups i.e. women groups, activists. In a rally, held close to the presidential palace and Pakistan's parliament, hundreds of women demonstrated in Pakistan demanding Musharraf apologize for the controversial remarks about female rape victims.

    S.M. Naseem, a columnist in the Pakistani daily, Dawn, wrote 'What has enraged most Pakistani women, as well as public opinion, is governmental and judicial apathy and the attempt by people at the highest level to hush these cases. When such attempts are exposed, the government's first reaction is to pretend to be puzzled, then to deny its involvement and claim it has been misquoted or misinterpreted, and finally to denounce these critics as unpatriotic and having agendas.'[ Dawn, rounded on General Musharraf in an editorial headlined "Wrong thing to say". International reactions included the Canadian Prime Minister, Paul Martin, who condemned the remarks. Amnesty International said 'This callous and insulting statement requires a public apology from President Musharraf to the women of Pakistan and especially to victims of rape, sexual assault and other forms of violence that are rampant with impunity in Pakistan. His statement is an offence to women all over the world.' MP and president of Policy Planning for the Pakistan Peoples Party, Sherry Rehman said it was shocking that Musharraf 'had publicly aired his low opinion of women'. Kamran Shafi, a retired army officer and a trenchant critic of a medieval and militarised Pakistan, condemned the remarks in an angry column headlined 'Do you want a Canadian visa?'

    Ethnic Minorities Rights

    General Pervez Musharraf upon assuming power promised protection of the rights of religious minorities and an end to the culture of religious intolerance. A Christian, Derick Cyprian, was appointed as a federal minister and the government undertook to repeal all discriminatory laws. There have been some positive developments in according basic rights to religious minorities, although in real terms their impact has been nullified by the growth of extremism and intolerance within the fabric of the society. General Musharraf has continued with his promise that religious minorities will be protected, and there are limited signs that Christians, Hindus (and, to a lesser extent, the Ahmaddiyas) are not being overtly discriminated against with regard to public positions. In August 2005, Justice Rana Bhagwandas (a Hindu) was sworn in as acting Chief Justice. Among noticeable positive steps taken by the military government are the declaration of the abolition of separate electorates, apparent curbs on extremist and sectarian groups, and a sense of inclusivity of all religious communities. The thaw in the relations with India allowed greater influx of Hindu and Sikh pilgrims and, during 2004-5, the Punjab government allocated funds to renovate the Krishna Mandir temple in Lahore. In addition, the Pakistani Constitution reserves 10 national assembly seats for religious minorities.

    Corruption issues

    When Musharraf came to power in 1999, he claimed that the corruption in the government bureaucracy would be cleaned up.

    In 2001, according to a survey conducted by Transparency International, Pakistan was ranked as the world's 11th most corrupt nation. However, by 2002 Pakistan's rating had improved 13 places within the year, to be ranked 24th. By 2007, Pakistan was ranked 138th out of 179 countries, placing it as the 41st most corrupt country in 2007. Overall, under Musharraf's regime, Pakistan's rating improved by 30 places.

    Suspension and reinstatement of the Chief Justice

    On 9 March 2007, Musharraf suspended the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, pressing corruption charges against him and filed a reference against the Chief Justice, in the Supreme Judicial Council according to Article 209(2) and Article 209(5)(b) of the Constitution of Pakistan. Thus on 13 March 2007, when the Supreme Judicial Council met, it was headed by Acting Chief Justice Javed Iqbal.

    Text of presidential reference against Chief Justice included:

    1- There are complaints of orders being verbally announced in open court in favor of one party and subsequently a written order at variance from the order announced in court being delivered. Two such cases have acquired particular notoriety. In one of these two cases it is alleged that amounts as large as Rs.55million may have been involved.

    2- Chief Justice had intimidated civil servants, including pressuring an administrator, to influence by his position to gain undue advantage by "insisting" on an increase and enhancement in his entitlements or in securing the relaxation of the rules in that respect.

    3- Chief Justice influenced government offices to promote his son's career. On 22 June 2005 Dr. Arsalan Iftikhar was appointed as Medical Officer/Demonstrator in the Institute of Public Health, Quetta.

    4- Chief Justice Chaudhry had received hundreds of thousands of rupees for reimbursement of gasoline for his car. The receipts he submitted were for a pump that only sold diesel fuel. Chief Justice had claimed reimbursement for airfare for his wife and children when he was not entitled to claim it.

    5- Chief Justice had arranged for the allotment of a plot of land in Karachi to which he was not entitled.

    Musharraf's moves sparked protests among Pakistani lawyers. On 12 March 2007, lawyers started Judicial Activism across Pakistan and began boycotting all court procedures in protest against the suspension. In Islamabad, as well as other cities such as Lahore, Karachi and Quetta, hundreds of lawyers dressed in black suits attended rallies, condemning the suspension as unconstitutional. Slowly the expressions of support for the ousted Chief Justice gathered momentum and by May, protesters and opposition parties took out huge rallies against Musharraf and his tenure as army chief was also challenged in the courts.

    On 20 July, the Supreme Court reinstated Chaudhry. Delivering the court's verdict, presiding Judge Khalil-ur-Rehman Ramday said: "The reference [against Mr Chaudhry] has been set aside and the chief justice has been reinstated."

    "The president respects the decision of the Supreme Court," Gen Musharraf's spokesman was quoted as saying by the state-run Associated Press of Pakistan. "The president has stated earlier that any judgement the Supreme Court arrives at will be honoured, respected and adhered to," the spokesman said.

    “I would like to emphasise that we must all accept the verdict with grace and dignity reflective of a mature nation" Shaukat Aziz accepted Supreme Court verdict. All Federal ministers and senior Pakistan Muslim League leaders said the government had accepted the Supreme Court’s verdict to reinstate the chief justice of Pakistan.

    PPP Co-chairman Asif Ali Zardari also has reportedly refused to reinstate the sacked chief justice of Pakistan (CJP) Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, apparently due to the fear that the latter, if reinstated, might reopen for adjudication cases on the National Reconciliation Order. During a meeting of leaders of the ruling coalition in Lahore on 23 July 2008, Zardari repeatedly insisted on not reinstating Chaudhry, reported the Daily Times.

    Lal Masjid siege

    The Musharraf government was forced to act against the Lal Masjid militants, after they formally announced the establishment of a parallel judicial system. The pro-Taliban Lal Masjid administration vowed to enforce Islamic laws in the federal capital and threatened to unleash a wave of suicide bombers if the government took any action to counter it. “Our youth will commit suicide attacks, if the government impedes the enforcement of the Sharia and attacks Lal Masjid and its sister seminaries,” Maulana Abdul Aziz, the in-charge of the mosque said in his Friday sermon.

    The standoff between the Pakistani government and the clerics of the Lal Masjid in Islamabad finally broke down on the morning of 8 July 2007, when the official government delegation led by Shujaat Hussain declared that the negotiations with the militants holed up in the mosque have reached an agreement. However, the clerics refused to release the hostages as promised by them in the agreement. Musharraf had given the militants some six months to lay down arms and abide the law of country. The government managed to recover 1,300 men, women and children during the operation. Some of these women, who were recovered safely on the last day of the operation, had their written death wishes with them. Six hundred suicide bombers are present in Karachi revealed Qasim Toori and Danish alias Talha during interrogations by law-enforcement agencies. Most of the suicide bombers are also former students of Islamabad’s Lal Masjid.

    Relations with Benazir Bhutto

    Also on 8 August 2007, Benazir Bhutto spoke about her secret meeting with Musharraf on 27 July, in an interview on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

    On 14 September 2007, Deputy Information Minister Tariq Azim stated that Bhutto won't be deported, but must face corruption suits against her. He clarified Sharif's and Bhutto's right to return to Pakistan: "Nawaz Sharif's case was different. He went back to Saudi Arabia because of an undertaking he had with the Saudi government; She (Bhutto) was always allowed to come back." Pakistan People's Party Farhatullah Babar said that Benazir Bhutto will forthwith declare the exact date of her return: "We are announcing the date of the return for Benazir Bhutto to Pakistan at 5:00 p.m. (1200 GMT)" (Makhdoom Amin Fahim will publish it at a news conference in Islamabad." Musharraf faced a rising militant violence, with a suicide bombing killing 15 elite commandos on 13 September. Bhutto declared her return from eight years exile on 18 October. Makhdoom Amin Faheem, vice chair of Pakistan Peoples Party said that "Benazir Bhutto will be landing in Karachi on 18 October."

    On 17 September 2007, Bhutto accused Musharraf's allies of pushing Pakistan to crisis by refusal to restore democracy and share power. Sheikh Rashid Ahmed stated that officials had agreed to grant Benazir Bhutto amnesty in pending corruption charges.

    Musharraf called for a three day mourning period after Bhutto's assassination on 27 December 2007.

    Resignation from the Army

    On 2 October 2007, Musharraf named Lt. Gen. Ashfaq Kayani as vice chief of the army starting 8 October. When Musharraf resigned from military on 28 November 2007, Kayani became Chief of Army Staff.

    Return of Nawaz Sharif

    Sharif returned to Pakistan in September 2007, and was immediately arrested and taken into custody at the airport.

    Saudi intelligence chief Muqran bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud and Lebanese politician Saad Hariri arrived separately in Islamabad on 8 September 2007, the former with a message from Saudi King Abdullah and the latter after a meeting with Nawaz Sharif in London. After meeting President General Pervez Musharraf for two-and-a-half hours, Prince Muqrin and Hariri addressed an unprecedented joint press conference at Army House, telling journalists that "Nawaz was bound under the agreement not to return to Pakistan before ten years in exile. We sincerely hope that Nawaz Sharif honours this agreement,” Prince Muqrin said. Asked about the details of the agreement, Prince Muqrin waved a copy of the agreement to the media and said: “It is here and signed.”

    On arrival in Saudi Arabia, Nawaz Sharif was received by Prince Muqrin bin Abdul Aziz, the Saudi intelligence chief, who had met Musharraf in Islamabad the previous day. That meeting had been followed by a rare press conference, at which he had warned that Sharif should not violate the terms of King Abdullah's agreement of staying out of politics for 10 years.

    2007 presidential elections

    In a March 2007 interview, Musharraf said that he intended to stay in the office for another five years.

    A nine-member panel of Supreme Court judges deliberated on six petitions (including Jamaat-e-Islami's, Pakistan's largest Islamic group) for disqualification of Musharraf as presidential candidate. Bhutto stated that her party may join other opposition groups, including Sharif's. Attorney-general Malik Mohammed Qayyum stated that, pendente lite, the Election Commission was "reluctant" to announce the schedule for the presidential vote.

    On 24 September 2007, the president of the Supreme Court bar association, Munir Malik, announced that former Supreme Court judge Wajihuddin Ahmed would challenge Musharraf in Pakistan's October presidential election. Ahmad had little chance of defeating Musharraf (since the president is elected by parliament and provincial assemblies).

    On 28 September 2007, in a 6-3 vote, the court presided by Judge Rana Bhagwandas ruled: "These petitions are held to be non-maintainable." The judgment removed obstacles to Musharraf's election bid.

    1- PML-Q government passed a constitutional amendment in National Assembly, with 2/3 majority, also approved by Senate that allowed President Musharraf to hold dual offices.

    2- Constitution of Pakistan - Article 63 clause (1) paragraph (d), read with proviso to Article 41 clause (7) paragraph (b), allows the President to hold dual office.

    3- Supreme Court of Pakistan on 28 September 2007, allowed President Musharraf to stand for elections in October 2007.

    4- President Musharraf was elected President of Pakistan, on 6 October 2007, by a combined electoral of the Senate, National Assembly and the FOUR Provincial Assembles.

    5- President Musharraf won by 58% votes declared in November 2007, as the constitutional President of Pakistan!

    Emergency declared in Pakistan

    On 3 November 2007 Musharraf declared emergency rule across Pakistan. He suspended the Constitution, imposed State of Emergency, and fired the chief justice of the Supreme Court.[100] While addressing the nation on State Television, Musharraf declared that the state of emergency was imposed in the country. In Islamabad, troops entered the Supreme Court building, arrested the judges and kept them under detention in their homes. Troops were deployed inside state-run TV and radio stations, while independent channels went off air.

    Pakistani general election, 2008

    On 23 March 2008, President Musharraf said an "era of democracy" has begun in Pakistan. He has put the country "on the track of development and progress." On 22 March, the Pakistan Peoples Party named former parliament speaker Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani as its candidate for the country's next prime minister, to lead a coalition government united against him. A confirmation vote is scheduled for 24 March 2008 in parliament, and the prime minister would be sworn in by Musharraf 25 March 2008.

    The statistics of the Election Commission, showed party position as follows, in the February 2008 elecions.

    The PML-Q and its allies: 10,844,233 votes. (40%)

    The PPP-P: 10,055,491 votes. (37%)

    PML-N: 6,240,343 votes. (23%)

    Total votes cast: 27.14 million

    Impeachment movement and resignation

    On 7 August 2008, the Pakistan Peoples Party and the Pakistan Muslim League (N) agreed to force Musharraf to step down and begin his impeachment. Asif Ali Zardari and Nawaz Sharif announced sending a formal request or joint charge sheet that he step down, and impeach him through parliamentary process upon refusal. Musharraf, however, said: “I will defeat those who try to push me to the wall. If they use their right to oust me, I have the right to defend myself." Musharraf, accordingly delayed his departure for the Beijing Olympics, by a day. A senior coalition official told Reuters: "Yes, we have agreed in principle to impeach him." The draft of the ruling coalition’s joint statement had been finalized by the draft Committee, and Musharraf would have to obtain vote of confidence from the National Assembly and 4 provincial assemblies. The government summoned the national assembly, or lower house of parliament, to sit on 11 August. Capt. Wasif Syed, spokesman for the Pakistan People's Party—confirmed: "A decision has been made that he has to go now, and all the parties have agreed on this point.". It is speculated that Pervez Musharraf would have had to face corruption and even murder charges if he had kept refusing a graceful exit from the president house.

    On Monday, 18 August 2008, in a speech defending his record, Musharraf announced that he had resigned.

    When announcing his resignation, Musharraf, 65, said: "After viewing the situation and consulting legal advisers and political allies, with their advice I have decided to resign. I leave my future in the hands of people. Not a single charge in the impeachment can stand against me. No charge can be proved against me because I never did anything for myself, it was all for Pakistan. On the map of the world, Pakistan is now an important country, by the grace of Allah. Whether I win or lose the impeachment, the nation will lose. They don’t realize they can succeed against me but the country will undergo irreparable damage. My resignation will go to the speaker of the National Assembly today.” In an emotional one-hour speech, Musharraf raised his clenched fists to chest height, and said, “Long live Pakistan!”

    "Nonetheless, despite his mistakes, he has been that rare phenomenon in Pakistani politics — an honest man with good intentions who tried to serve his country to the best of his abilities. In a country that has suffered so much over the years from corrupt and self-serving politicians, there have been too few figures like him" Honorable act by Musharraf - Arab News Editorial

    Approval ratings

    In early 2007, Musharraf was extremely popular. According to a US survey, IRI President General Pervez Musharraf was more popular in Pakistan than opposition leaders Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif. Around 37 percent of the respondents were of the view that Musharraf's supported PML-Q deserved to be re-elected.

    However, by August 2007, after the lawyers Judicial Activism started, Musharraf became slightly unpopular in Pakistan due to persistent media efforts and anti-Musharraf talk shows. An International Republican Institute survey, taken of 3000 people, showed that 64 percent of the population did not want another term to be granted to Musharraf as the president of Pakistan.

    Musharraf's popularity grew after his resignation and several pro-Musharraf websites and groups on Facebook emerged.

    In the most recent interview with Musharraf, Daphne Barak admits that she receives mails and people have started missing Musharraf: "Many emails are relatively flattering to you. I even have emails from PPP members who say that they never thought they will miss you, but they do. Especially young people!"

    Life after Presidency

    After resignation, Musharraf went for an expected pilgrimage to Mecca. It was thought he might also continue his travelling on a lucrative speaking tour through Middle East, Europe and United States. Chicago-based Embark LLC was one of the international public-relations firms trying to land Musharraf as a highly paid keynote speaker According to Embark President David B. Wheeler, the speaking fee for Musharraf would be in the $150,000-200,000 range for a day plus jet and other V.I.P. arrangements on the ground.

    Musharraf disclosed that he planned to jump back into full time politics but not until he had moved into his newly constructed house in Chak Shahzad in Rawalpindi/Islamabad as he did not want to misuse the army house for political purposes.

    His speech at the Amway Grand Plaza Hotel in January 2009 marked his first U.S. appearance since he left office in 2008, as he was embarking on an international speaking tour. The former president pleaded for understanding in his country's fight against terrorism, in a region deemed central to the outcome of that battle. "Pakistan has confronted terrorism and extremism for more than two decades now," Pervez Musharraf said in a speech to about 500 people at the World Affairs Council of Western Michigan event.

    Regarding the Lahore attack on Sri Lankan players, Musharraf criticized the police commandos' inability to kill any of the gunmen, saying "If this was the elite force I would expect them to have shot down those people who attacked them, the reaction, their training should be on a level that if anyone shoots toward the company they are guarding, in less than three seconds they should shoot the man down."

    Article 6 trial

    The PML Nawaz have tried to get Pervez Musharraf to stand trial in an article 6 trial for treason in relation to the emergency on November 3, 2007, which Musharraf signed as Chief of Army Staff instead of in his position as President of Pakistan, yet revoked it as the President of Pakistan, also revoking the PCO of 3 November.

    The Prime Minister of Pakistan Yousaf Raza Gilani has said a consensus resolution is required in national assembly for an article 6 trial of Pervez Musharraf “I have no love lost for Musharraf ... if parliament decides to try him, I will be with parliament. Article 6 cannot be applied to one individual ... those who supported him are today in my cabinet and some of them have also joined the PML-N ... the MMA, the MQM and the PML-Q supported him ... this is why I have said that it is not doable,” said the Prime Minister while informally talking to editors and also replying to questions by journalists at an Iftar-dinner he had hosted for them.

    Meanwhile, Proclamation of Emergency and Revocation is the constitutional right of the President of Pakistan, according to the constitution of Pakistan, Article 232 and Article 236. On 15 February 2008, the Supreme Court has delivered detailed judgement to validate the Proclamation of Emergency on 3 November 2007, the Provisional Constitution Order No 1 of 2007 and the Oath of Office (Judges) Order, 2007.

    Saudi Arabia have agreements in place to stop any article 6 trial in Pakistan in relation to Pervez Musharraf according to the newspapers due to Saudi Arabia's long standing friendship with all of the political parties in Pakistan. Sharif is under tremendous pressure from Saudi Arabia to shun his demand for Musharraf’s trial under the Article Six of the Constitution.

    The President of PML-Q, Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain has said that those vying for article 6 against Musharraf to suffer and would themselves get embroiled in trouble, Secretary General of PML-Q Mushahid Hussain Sayed, also ruled out Musharraf’s trial under Article-6 of the Constitution.

    Cases

    Abbottabad's district and sessions judge in a missing person's case passed judgment asking the authorities to declare Pervez Musharraf a proclaimed offender.

    Launch of All Pakistan Muslim League

    Despite being in self-exile, Musharraf launched his own political party, the All Pakistan Muslim League, in June 2010.

    Legacy

    Musharraf characterizes himself as a moderate leader with liberal, progressive ideas, and has expressed admiration for Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Turkish Republic. President Musharraf led a team of economists and professionals along with ex-PM Shaukat Aziz, to mark their achievements. The economic achievements caused Pakistan to emerge as a geo-strategic important country with a 100% better economy. In 2006, Pakistan was the 3rd fastest growing economy of the world and world’s preferred destination for Investment. His vision and policies helped Pakistan come out of the list of Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) while setting it on path of prosperity, growth and economic reforms. His era ushered in multi-national corporations].

    President Musharraf moved aggressively to privatize the economy, reduce poverty and Pakistan's foreign debt, and allow the press more freedom. Statements issued by the government suggest significant improvement in the economy. Pakistan's Economy boomed from a mere worth of $75 billion in 1999 to become $170 billion in 2008. Debt servicing in ratio to GDP also decreased significantly.

    The business and finance side thrived under his strong-armed stewardship. Pakistan won approval of global capital markets, with highlights being the $800 million Regulation S Rule 144A sovereign bond, including a 30 year tranche, and a ground breaking GDR from Muslim Commercial Bank.

    It was under Musharraf's liberal policies that led to freedom of media and from one state run television PTV, above 50 channels List of Pakistani television stations were given license to operate. Pakistan saw an era of huge influx of television and radio channels.

    Dr. Mahjabeen Islam says, "The vibrancy of Pakistan’s press is proven by the fact that many an expatriate obtains their news from Pakistan’s news sources rather than the post-9/11 throttled and slanted media bytes that one gets in the United States. And to give credit where it’s due, media freedom will remain as General Musharraf’s positive legacy".

    Xenia Dormandy, Executive Director for Research at Harvard University's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, says Pervez Musharraf is in a difficult situation, given Pakistan's political turmoil, its war on terror and its relations with its neighbors and the United States. "He is squeezed between his relationship with the U.S. and our desires, the improving relationship with India, the historical relationship with Afghanistan and, at the same time, domestic political constraints, and the long-term tribal interests of much of his population," says Dormandy. Some experts who view the General in a sympathetic light agree. Among them is analyst Michael Krepon, co-founder of the non-profit Henry L. Stimson Center in Washington, who adds that the complexities of Pakistani society must be taken into account when looking at Pervez Musharraf.

    Dr Shirin M Mazari, an Islamabad-based analyst says, "Musharraf has done a lot for women. He has increased their representation in Parliament. He has given a wider public space to women. He will not leave behind the negative legacy that Zia left."

    The Brookings Institution's Steven Cohen says, "He's going to have a difficult time leaving a permanent imprint on Pakistan, partly because the material he is dealing with is so intractable. He'd like to get an agreement on Kashmir. But India is not into compromising much more, if at all, even though Musharraf has come a long way in terms of Pakistan's position. He'd like to reform Pakistani politics and the Pakistan economy. But that's very, very hard to do, in part, because politics can't be reformed from the top and, in part, because the economy has been so badly abused over the decades and it's in a really serious shape." Even those who would like to see Pervez Musharraf's "enlightened" vision for Pakistan succeed warn that there is no telling what next year's election may bring.

    "He's a man who has a very high opinion of himself based on his performance in the Army and his professional education and his training. He believes - - and I think others would agree - - because Pakistan has a shortage of civilian leaders, that's why the military has to be involved. He once compared himself to Atatürk [i.e., Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey] and said Atatürk was his role model. But clearly, he's a man who has a larger vision of things and believes that he can do great things for Pakistan and for the world," says Cohen.

    After Musharraf left office of the President, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice offered "deep gratitude" for his original decision to join the U.S.-led fight against extremists. She called Musharraf "one of the world's most committed partners in the war against terrorism."

    By most accounts, General Pervez Musharraf had a grand vision for Pakistan, one that sought to put it on a path of what he called "Enlightened Moderation."

    Return to politics and a new military coup

    Since quitting politics in 2008, Musharraf has been residing in London, the U.K in a self-imposed exile. In late September 2010, speaking at a debate, Musharraf confirmed that he would be launching a new political party in October to contest the upcomingelections in Pakistan in 2013 but refused to say, when he would return to Pakistan, where he could face treason charges. He also warned of a new military coup and said the military must play a bigger role in order to gain stability in Pakistan.

    On October 1, 2010 in a packed press conference of cheering supporters in Westminister, Musharraf officially launched his political comeback and his new party, All Pakistan Muslim League saying that the current Pakistani leadership had failed.



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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era

    Pervez Musharraf



    Personal Net Worth: $400,000 "Estimated"
    About

    General (ret) Pervez Musharraf is a Pakistani politician and military figure who served as the tenth President of Pakistan (2001–2008) and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army (1998–2007).

    He took power on 12 October 1999, following a nonviolent military coup d'état and subsequent ouster of the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. The military-led government stated its intention to restructure the political, economic and electoral systems. On May 12, 2000, Pakistan's 12 member Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted Musharraf executive and legislative authority for 3 years from the coup date endorsing his governance.

    On 18 August 2008, Pervez Musharraf resigned from the post of President under impeachment pressure from the coalition government. He was succeeded on 6 September 2008 by Asif Ali Zardari duly elected as Pakistan's 11th President.


    Early life

    Pervez Musharraf was born on August 11, 1943 in Nehar Wali Haveli meaning "House Next to the Canal", situated in Kacha Saad Ullah Mohallah, Daryaganj in Delhi, British India, and stems from a family of government servants. After Musharraf's grandfather, Qazi Mohtashimuddin, retired as the Deputy Collector of Revenue based in Delhi, he acquired Neharwali Haveli in the old walled city of Delhi where Musharraf was born.

    The haveli, with its high roofs and arches, and is believed to have been previously the home of a "Wazir" (Minister) in the court of Bahadur Shah Zafar — the last Mughal emperor of the 19th century.

    After independence of Pakistan, Musharraf's family migrated to Pakistan where his father, Syed Musharraf Uddin — a graduate of Aligarh University — joined the Pakistan Foreign Office as an Accountant, and ultimately retired as a Director.

    Musharraf's mother, Zarin, received her master's degree from the University of Lucknow in 1944 and supplemented the recently immigrated family's income to support the education of her children. She recently retired from a United Nations agency in Islamabad.

    He revealed in his memoirs that he was critically injured after falling from a mango tree as a teenager, and he considers this his first direct experience with death.

    Musharraf attended Saint Patrick's School, Karachi, graduating in 1958, later attending Forman Christian College in Lahore and is said to have been good in mathematics during his academic life.

    Musharraf is married to Sehba, who is from Okara. They have a son, Bilal, who was a graduate student at Stanford University and currently works in Silicon Valley, and a daughter, Ayla Raza,a graduate ofNational College of Arts and works as an architect in Karachi.


    Military career

    In 1961, he entered the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul, graduating 11th in his class. He was commissioned on April 19, 1964 in the Artillery Regiment. Later he joined the Special Services Group and was posted to Field Artillery Regiments. A graduate of the Command and Staff College, Quetta, and the National Defence College, Rawalpindi, Musharraf is also a graduate of the Royal College of Defence Studies of the United Kingdom. Musharraf revealed in his memoirs that in 1965 he was charged with taking unauthorized leave and was about to be court-martialed for it, but was excused due to the war with India.

    Indo-Pakistani wars

    Musharraf participated in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 16 (SP) Field Artillery Regiment. His regiment saw action as part of the First Armoured Division’s offensive in the Khemkaran sector; as part of a major offensive against the Indian Army, the Pakistani army advanced 15 miles (24 km) into India and it was in the town of Khem Karan that Musharraf wrote his first letter to his mother during the war "proudly saying that I was writing from India". By all accounts the vital advance failed at the Battle of Asal Uttar, as Pakistan lost a golden opportunity to make major strategic gains; this was a turning point in the war. His regiment was later moved to the Lahore front, which was threatened by the Indian Army. According to Musharraf, "Having stabilized the Lahore front, we were ordered to move again to the Sialkot front. This was where the famous tank battles of Chawinda were fought. At the end of the war this sector was to become a graveyard of Indian tanks.". During the war Musharraf was noted for sticking to his post under shellfire. Towards the end of the war an Indian shell hit one of the artillery guns of Musharraf's unit and set it on fire. According to Musharraf, whilst everyone else took cover, he, followed by a soldier, "dashed to the blazing gun" and removed the "hot shells" one by one and "threw them to safety on the ground". For this he received an award for gallantry and was promoted to the rank of captain.

    Later, in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, he served as a Company Commander in the Special Service Group (SSG) Commando Battalion. Originally scheduled to be flown to East Pakistan along with other SSG troops, he was redeployed in Punjab as war broke out and all flights over India were cancelled. He later admitted that he "broke down and wept" when he heard the "disgusting" news of Pakistan's unconditional surrender to India. Later he commanded regiments of artillery, an Artillery Brigadeand then an infantry division. In September 1987, he was instrumental in giving orders to a newly formed SSG at Khapalu base (Kashmir), which launched an assault and successfully captured two intermediate posts, Bilafond La in Siachen Glacier, before being pushed back.

    On promotion to the rank of Major General on 15 January 1991, he was assigned the command of an infantry Division. Later, on promotion to Lieutenant General on 21 October 1995 he took over command of 1 Corps, the elite strike corps. In 1998, following the resignation of General Jehangir Karamat, he was personally promoted over other senior officers by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and took over as the Army Chief of Staff and Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.

    Role in Kargil Conflict

    From May to July 1999, Pakistan and India were involved in the Kargil Conflict, an armed conflict between the two countries in the Kargil district of Kashmir. It was planned and executed during General Musharraf's term as the Pakistani Army Chief of Staff under Prime Minister Sharif.

    Sharif has claimed that Musharraf was solely responsible for the Kargil attacks. On the other hand, Musharraf claims that the decision was made by Sharif, who was under United States pressure. Ex-CENTCOM Commander Anthony Zinni, and Sharif, has stated that Musharraf requested that the Prime Minister withdraw Pakistani troops from Kashmir.

    Casualties on both sides had been particularly heavy in Kargil. Musharraf had good relations with Jehangir Karamat from whom he took over the command. Soon after the coup, one of the first to be appointed as minister was journalist Maleeha Lodhi who was close to Jehangir Karamat. Also recruited was Shaukat Aziz (who served as the country's Prime Minister later) who volunteered to improve the economy. Western banks rescheduled Pakistani loans, which had been subjected to economic sanctions since Pakistan conducted atomic testing.

    Pervez Musharraf resigned from the Army on 28 November 2007 in an attempt to regularize his position as President.


    Presidency

    Military coup d'état Musharraf became de facto Head of Government (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive powers) of Pakistan following a bloodless coup d'état on 12 October 1999. That day, Sharif attempted to dismiss Musharraf and install Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) Director Ziauddin Butt in his place. Musharraf, who was out of the country, boarded a commercial airliner to return to Pakistan. Senior army generals refused to accept Musharraf's dismissal, which was deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

    Sharif ordered the Karachi airport closed to prevent the landing of the airliner, which then circled the skies over Karachi. In the coup, the Generals ousted Sharif's administration and took over the airport. The plane landed, allegedly with only a few minutes of fuel to spare, and Musharraf assumed control of the government. Sharif was put under house arrest and later exiled to Saudi Arabia, where he resided until he returned again to Pakistan on 25 November 2007.

    He and other leaders have subsequently been prevented from entering Pakistan. Although the disagreement between Musharraf and Sharif started from the day Nawaz Sharif ordered withdrawal of troops from Kargil it reportedly centred around the Prime Minister's desire to find a diplomatic resolution to the conflict with India in the Kashmir region.

    The existing President of Pakistan, Rafiq Tarar, remained in office until June 2001. Musharraf formally appointed himself President on 20 June 2001, just days before his scheduled visit to Agra for talks with India.

    Foreign policy

    Support for the War on Terror

    Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Musharraf sided with the United States against the Taliban government in Afghanistan after an ultimatum by U.S. President George W. Bush. Musharraf agreed to give the United States the use of three airbases for Operation Enduring Freedom. United States Secretary of State Colin Powell and other Administration officials met with Musharraf. On 19 September 2001, Musharraf addressed the people of Pakistan and stated that, while he opposed military tactics against the Taliban, Pakistan risked being endangered by an alliance of India and the U.S. if it did not cooperate. In 2006, Musharraf testified that this stance was pressured by threats from the U.S., and revealed in his memoirs that he had "war-gamed" the United States as an adversary and decided that it would end in a loss for Pakistan.

    The leadership in Pakistan war-gamed the USA and NATO as an enemy and realized that it was worthless committing suicide over the obstinate Taliban. Pakistan's stagnated economy had only slightly started recovering, after being put in the HIPCs category, by the IMF and World Bank, as one of the highest indebted poor countries. Galvanizing the whole nation into agreeing to fight the USA and NATO was another impossible task. Indian eagerness to join the War on Terror was an alarming condition that Pakistan could not have overlooked. Indian jets flying over Pakistan's space, with the strategic assets lying below, were a suicidal recipe. An accidental Indian bomb dropped on the Kahuta plant would have created disaster. Pakistan drew up plans to secure its NWFP border along Afghanistan. Around 80,000 troops were placed to patrol and were assigned specific targets.

    Relations with India

    Musharraf was Chief of Army Staff at the time of Mujahideen incursions into India from Pakistan-administered Kashmir in the summer of 1999. Although Pakistan claimed that these were Kashmiri freedom fighters based in Indian-controlled Kashmir, later developments showed that they were Pakistani paramilitary soldiers backing up the separatists on the mountain top. After fierce fighting, Pakistani soldiers were pulled back due to pressure from the international community.

    However, in Battle Ready, a book co-authored by ex-CENTCOM Commander in Chief Anthony Zinni and novelist Tom Clancy, the former alleges that Musharraf was the one who pushed Sharif to withdraw the Pakistani troops after being caught in a losing scenario. According to an ex-official of the Musharraf government, Hassan Abbas, Musharraf planned the whole operation and sold the idea to Sharif. The view that Musharraf wanted to attempt the Kargil infiltrations much earlier was also revealed by Bhutto in an interview with a leading daily newspaper, where he had supposedly boasted that "he would hoist the flag of Pakistan atop the Srinagar Assembly" if his plan was executed. Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (PML(N)), a leading Pakistan party added that Musharraf had planned the Kargil intrusions but panicked when the conflict broke out with India and decided to alert Sharif. Since the Kargil incident occurred just after the Lahore Peace Summit earlier that year, Musharraf is often regarded with scepticism in India.

    In the middle of 2004, Musharraf began a series of talks with India to solve the Kashmir dispute. Both leaders also discussed the following issues: Wullar Barrage and Kishangaga power project, Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River being built by India inJammu and Kashmir, disputed Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch, Siachin glacier, issues of Gurdaspur and Ferozepur's status, minority rights, Indian contentions that Pakistan is sponsoring "cross-border" terrorism.

    In 2007, Musharraf stated, after a meeting with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, that the current push to normalize relations between the two states is "irreversible."

    2001 Gujarat Earthqauke of India

    Pakistan President Pervez Mushrraf sent a plane load of relief supplies to India from Islamabad to Ahmedabad[26] that carried 200 tents and more than 2,000 blankets. Furthermore, the President called Indian PM to express his sympathy over the loss from the earthquake.

    Richard Armitage comments

    During a 24 September 2006 interview with Steve Kroft on 60 Minutes, Musharraf said that then-U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage had called Musharraf's intelligence director shortly following the 9/11 attacks and threatened military action if Pakistan did not support the U.S.-led "war on terror". According to Musharraf, Armitage warned: "Be prepared to be bombed. Be prepared to go back to the Stone Age." Furthermore, during an interview with Jon Stewart of The Daily Show on 26 September 2006, Musharraf stated that then-Secretary of State Colin Powell also contacted him with a similar message: "You are with us or against us." Musharraf refused to elaborate further, citing the then-upcoming release of his book, In the Line of Fire: A Memoir (ISBN 0-7432-8344-9). Armitage has, however, categorically denied that he had used such harsh words to threaten Pakistan, saying instead that on 12 September 2001 he had told Pakistan's top intelligence official that Pakistan would have to decide whether it was with or against the U.S. in its efforts against al-Qaida and the Taliban. In Armitage's words, "It would be completely out of character for me to threaten the use of military force when I was not authorized to do so. I don't command aircraft and could not make good on such a threat." In a 22 September 2006 joint news conference with Musharraf, U.S. President George W. Bush said, "I don't know of any conversation that was reported in the newspaper like that."

    Nuclear proliferation

    As President, General Musharraf had promoted Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan as his "Science Advisor to the President". One of the most widely-reported controversies during Musharraf's administration arose as a consequence of the disclosure of nuclear proliferation by Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, the metallurgical engineer known as the father of Pakistan's Gas-centrifuge program. Musharraf has denied knowledge of or participation by Pakistan's government or army in this proliferation and has faced bitter domestic criticism for singularly vilifying Khan, a former national hero. Khan has been pardoned in exchange for cooperation in the investigation, but is still under house arrest. After Musharraf's resignation, dr. Khan was released from House arrest by the executive order of Supreme Court of Pakistan.

    Space Program

    Musharraf was eager for the Pakistan to lead the way in the space race. He was one of the few leaders of Pakistan to authorized space-development projects in Pakistan. Musharraf also unfroze Pakistan's Space program which was last frozen in 1996. In 1999, when Dr. A. Q. Khan met with him, he quickly authorized SUPARCO to developed its first domestically build earth observational satellite. Musharraf also established a separated fund for SUPARCO to developed its high-powered HRLV, SLV, PSLVprojects. According to the media, all these project will be launch from Pakistan in 2012, but the SUPARCO has not confirmed yet. In 2005, President Musharraf outlined his vision for SUPARCO by laying down a clearly defined agenda for the national space agency to pursue and deliver in minimum time. Musharraf had made it clear that:

    "Pakistan would need to catch up to the world space leaders and make up for lost time and neglect in the past and future".

    Musharraf had authorised renewed research and development on an indigenous launch capability that would be able to put into orbit a domestically built satellite, Paksat-1R. In his [Musharraf] book, In the Line of Fire: A Memoir, Musharraf has expressed his desired that "SUPARCO has suffered severe economic and global sanctions. Musharraf has expressed his desired that "SUPARCO has suffered severe economic and global sanctions but in future Pakistan will send its satellites from its soil".

    Relations with China

    Musharraf accused Western leaders and media of politicizing the 2008 Summer Olympics by criticizing China's human rights record and its policy in Tibet. He also said he would cooperate with China, which is a historical ally to Pakistan, in the fight against terrorism.

    President Musharraf was internally Pro-China and kept the strategic relations intact. During President Musharraf’s government, China for the first time allowed a Pakistani president access to one of its most advanced and secret military research facilities.

    Relations with Saudi Arabia

    Pakistan’s relationship with Saudi Arabia continues to grow. After his coup in October 1999, Riyadh was the first foreign capital General Pervez Musharraf visited, to signify the importance he gave to PAK-Saudi relations.

    King Abdullah's first visit to Pakistan in 2006 as ruler, he was welcomed at the airport by both President Pervez Musharraf and Prime Minister Shawkat Aziz, a reflection of the strong ties between the two nations. Hundreds of thousands of Pakistanis lined the road from the airport to welcome the Saudi King. President Musharraf and the Saudi King, take a common stand on the war on terror and expanding trade ties, as well as international issues such as Kashmir, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Iraq, Iran’s nuclear program, Afghanistan and reform of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). President Musharraf honored King Abdullah by conferring upon him Pakistan’s highest civil award, Nishan-e-Pakistan, in a colorful investiture ceremony at the presidential palace.

    On 21 Jan 2007, the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah conferred the King Abdul Aziz Medallion, the Kingdom’s top honor, on Pakistani President Gen. Pervez Musharraf during a ceremony at his palace in Riyadh. The first Pakistani leader ever to receive this highest Saudi honor.

    Musharraf nominated for 2004 Nobel Peace Prize

    In 2004, the President of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf was nominated in the final list of hopefuls for that year's prestigious Nobel Peace Prize, which totals 194 candidates, as annonced by the Nobel Institute. It is not the very first time that a suggestion of awarding the Noble Peace Prize to President Musharraf has been made from such an important quarter but seeing the very clear role being played by the Pakistani President in fighting terrorism against Al Qaeda and other extremist groups within Pakistan, several important figures and organisations have also begun supporting General Musharraf as the strongest entrant for the Noble Peace Prize.

    Domestic issues

    2002 elections

    Shortly after Musharraf's takeover, several people filed court petitions challenging his assumption of power. However, he got The Oath of Judges Order 2000 issued. It required the judges to take a fresh oath of office swearing allegiance to military rule and to state they would make no decisions against the military. Many judges refused and resigned in protest. On 12 May 2000, the Supreme Court asked Musharraf to hold national elections by 12 October 2002; elections for local governments took place in 2001.

    In an attempt to legitimize his presidency and assure its continuance after the approaching restoration of democracy, he held a referendum on 30 April 2002 to extend his term to five years after the October elections. The voter turnout was 80% by most estimates, amidst claims of irregularities. A few weeks later, Musharraf went on TV and apologized to the nation for "irregularities" in the referendum.

    In August 2002, he passed the Legal Framework Order which provided for the general elections of 2002 and the revival of the 1973 Constitution, but added numerous amendments to the Constitution. The Supreme Court rejected part of the Order.

    General elections were held in October 2002 and a plurality of the seats in the Parliament was won by the Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML-Q), a pro-Musharraf party. It formed a majority coalition with independents and allies such as the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM). However, parties opposed to Musharraf effectively paralysed the National Assembly for over a year. The following month, Musharraf handed over certain powers to the newly elected Parliament. The National Assembly elected Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali as Prime Minister, who in turn appointed his own cabinet.

    In December 2003, Musharraf made a deal with Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, a six-member coalition of Islamic parties, agreeing to leave the army by 31 December 2004. With that party's support, pro-Musharraf legislators were able to muster the two-thirdssupermajority required to pass the Seventeenth Amendment, which retroactively legalized Musharraf's 1999 coup and many of his decrees. In late 2004, Musharraf went back on his agreement with the MMA and pro-Musharraf legislators in the Parliament passed a bill allowing Musharraf to keep both offices. Constitution Article 63 clause (1) paragraph (d), read with proviso to Article 41 clause (7) paragraph (b), allows the President to hold dual office.

    Denunciation of extremism

    On 12 January 2002, Musharraf gave a landmark speech against Islamic extremism, a few months after September 11. He unequivocally condemned all acts of terrorism and pledged to combat Islamic extremism and lawlessness within Pakistan itself. He vowed, the government was committed to root out extremism and made it clear that the banned militant organizations would not be allowed to resurface under any new name.He stressed, "the recent decision to ban extremist groups promoting militancy was taken in the national interest after thorough consultations. It was not taken under any foreign influence". In 2002, the Musharraf-led government, took a firm stand against the jihadi organizations and groups promoting extremism, and arrested Maulana Masood Azhar, head of the Jaish-i-Mohammad, and Hafiz Saeed, chief of the Lashkar-i-Taiba, and took dozens of activists into custody. An official ban was imposed on the groups on January 12.

    At the same time as banning foreign funding of Islamic educational institutions, he made it compulsory for them to teach a whole host of additional subjects such as computing. This meant that many had to close due to the halt of funds from Pakistanis working abroad resulting in not being able to teach the additional subjects that he had made compulsory. Musharraf also instituted prohibitions on foreign students' access to studying Islam within Pakistan, an effort which began as an outright ban but was later reduced to restrictions on obtaining visas.

    In 2004, he proposed "Enlightened Moderation" as an alternative to Islamic fundamentalism. On 18 September 2005, Musharraf made a historic speech before a broad based audience of Jewish leadership, sponsored by the American Jewish Congress's Council for World Jewry, in New York City. In the speech, he denounced terrorism and opened the door to relationships between Pakistan and Israel, as well as between the Muslim world and Jews worldwide. He was widely criticized by Middle EasternArab leaders and Muslim clerics, but was met with some praise among Jewish leadership.

    On 13 September 2007, 300 Pakistani troops were captured by Islamic militants. Terrorists then bombed Musharraf's own SSG unit, killing 16, and launched rocket attacks in the North-West Frontier province and Tribal areas.

    Musharraf has been met by criticism. Zahid Hussain, Pakistan's correspondent for the Times of London, the Wall Street Journal, and Newsweek and political correspondent for the Karachi-based monthly Newsline said in 2007 that despite Musharraf delivering to the United States, where Al Qaeda was concerned, he did in fact do nothing to eliminate extremism from the Pakistani society or to curb the activities of the Taliban. This is very natural, he said, because since 1994 Pakistan has very actively backed the Taliban and the military itself has Taliban sympathizers. Hussain also said that Musharraf was also criticized for his contradictory statements and, through which he sought to get support from both the Western allies as well as the islamist militants. Musharraf also "never took any action against those madrassas that preached hatred" and have been involved in fueling extremism. Hussain said that Musharraf did talk a lot about it and whenever there was pressure from abroad, he would announce some measures but these were not followed by any implementation. In other words, Hussain said, he failed to understand that one cannot develop a moderate Muslim society unless the root cause of extremism is completely eliminated.

    Assassination attempts

    In 2000 Kamram Atif, allegedly a member of Harkat-ul Mujahideen al-Alami, tried to assassinate Musharraf. Atif was sentenced to death in 2006 by an Anti Terrorism Court.

    On 14 December 2003, Musharraf survived an assassination attempt when a powerful bomb went off minutes after his highly-guarded convoy crossed a bridge in Rawalpindi. It was the third such attempt during his four-year rule. On 25 December 2003, twosuicide bombers tried to assassinate Musharraf, but their car bombs failed to kill him; 16 others nearby died instead.[45] Musharraf escaped with only a cracked windscreen on his car. Militant Amjad Farooqi was apparently suspected of being the mastermind behind these attempts, and was killed by Pakistani forces in 2004 after an extensive manhunt.

    On 6 July 2007, there was another attempted assassination, when an unknown group fired a 7.62 submachine gun at Musharraf's plane as it took off from a runway in Rawalpindi. Security also recovered 2 anti-aircraft guns, from which no shots had been fired. On 17 July 2007, Pakistani police detained 39 people in relation to the attempted assassination of Musharraf. They were detained at an undisclosed location by a joint team of Punjab Police, the Federal Investigation Agency and other Pakistani intelligence agencies.

    On 8 October 2007, a military helicopter escorting President Musharraf, on his visit to the earthquake-affected areas on its second anniversary, crashed near Muzaffarabad, killing four people, including a brigadier. The Puma helicopter crashed at Majohi near Garhi Dupatta in Azad Kashmir at 11:15 am due to technical fault. Those killed included Brigadier Zahoor Ahmed, Naik Ajmal, Sepoy Rashid and PTV cameraman Muhammad Farooq, while President’s Media Advisor Maj Gen (R) Rashid Qureshi sustained injuries. Twelve people were on board the helicopter.

    2004 confidence vote

    PML-Q led government with the help of the religious parties the MMA, secured 2/3 majority in National assembly and Senate and constitionally validated Musharraf's election.

    On 1 January 2004 Musharraf had won a confidence vote in the Electoral College of Pakistan, consisting of both houses of Parliament and the four provincial assemblies. Musharraf received 658 out of 1170 votes, a 56% majority, but many opposition and Islamic members of parliament walked out to protest the vote. As a result of this vote, according to Article 41(8) of the Constitution of Pakistan, Musharraf was "deemed to be elected" to the office of President. His term was extended to 2007.

    Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali resigned on 26 June 2004, after losing the support of the PML(Q). His resignation was at least partly due to his public differences with the party chairman Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain, and was rumoured to have happened at Musharraf's command, although neither man has confirmed this. Jamali had been appointed with the support of Musharraf's and the pro-Musharraf PML(Q). Most PML(Q) parliamentarians formerly belonged to the Pakistan Muslim League party led by Sharif, and most ministers of the cabinet were formerly senior members of other parties, joining the PML(Q) after the elections upon being offered powerful offices. It is believed that Musharraf replaced Jamali due to his poor performance and in his place Musharraf nominated Shaukat Aziz, the minister for finance and a former employee of Citibank and head of Citibank Private Banking as the new prime minister.

    Economy

    In 1999, under Nawaz Sharif, Revenue generation of around Rs.308 billion could not meet the growing expenditure requirements; with only an average of Rs.80 billion being spent on Public sector development programs (PSDP) annually, and no visible project to boast about. From this Rs.308 billion around 65% was being utilized for debt servicing. In 1988 Pakistan’s foreign debt was $18 billion, but at the end of 1999 it had accumulated to become $38 billion. A 100% increased burden on the already crippled economy. Public and external debt exceeded 300% of Foreign exchange earnings.

    Musharraf then appointed Shaukat Aziz, a former Citibank executive, as finance minister. Profile: Shaukat Aziz - BBC News

     Pakistan’s economy grew by 100% — to become $ 160 billion
     Revenue grew by 100% — to become $ 11.4 billion
     Per Capita income grew by 100% — to become $ 925
     Foreign Reserves grew by 500% — to become $ 17 billion
     Exports grew by 100% — to become $ 18.5 billion
     Textile exports grew by 100% — to become $ 11.2 billion
     Karachi Stock Exchange grew by 500% — to become $ 75 billion
     Foreign Direct Investment grew by 500% — to become $ 8.4 billion
     Annual Debt servicing decreased by 35% — to become 26%
     Poverty decreased by 10% — to become 24%
     Literacy ratio grew by 10% — to become 54%
     Public development Funds grew by 100% — to become Rs 520 billion
    The vision and policies helped Pakistan come out of the list of Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) while setting it on path of prosperity, growth and economic reforms. The world financial institutions like the World Bank and IMFand ADBhave been praising Pakistan for its reforms, fiscal policies and macro-economic achievements.

    Education

    Under Musharraf's tenure, Pakistan saw exceptional setup of 47 universities, including Virtual University, under the supervision of Higher Education Commission. Most of the universities were of international standards.

    Pakistan now has a total of 245,682 educational institutions in all categories, including 164,579 (i.e. 67%) in the public sector and 81,103 (i.e. 100%) in the private sector, reports the National Education Census (NEC-2005). The census — jointly conducted by the Ministry of Education, the Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) and the Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS) — reveals that the number of private-sector institutions has increased from 36,096 in 1999-2000 to 81,103 in 2005, i.e. by 100%; 45,007 Educational Institutions have increased in Musharraf Era.

    Women's Rights

    The National Assembly voted in favor of the “Women's Protection Bill” on 15 November 2006 and the Senate approved it on 23 November 2006. President General Pervez Musharraf signed into law the “Women's Protection Bill”, on 1 December 2006. The bill places rape laws under the penal code and allegedly does away with harsh conditions that previously required victims to produce four male witnesses and exposed the victims to prosecution for adultery, if they were unable to prove the crime. However, the Women's Protection bill has been criticized heavily by many for paying continued lip service and failing to address the actual problem by its' roots: repealing the Hudood Ordinance. In this context, Musharraf has also been criticized by women and human rights activists for not following up his words by action. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) said that "The so-called Women's Protection Bill is a farcical attempt at making Hudood Ordinances palatable" outlining the issues of the bill and the continued impact on women.

    His government increased reserved seats for women in assemblies, to increase women's representation and make their presence more effective. Compared with 1988 seats in the National Assembly were increased from 20 to 60. In provincial assemblies 128 seats were reserved for women. This situation has brought out increase participation of women for 1988 and 2008 elections.

    Rape victims and comments

    In March 2005, a couple of months after the rape of a Pakistani physician, Dr. Shazia Khalid, working on a government gas plant in the remote Baluchistan province, Musharraf was criticised for pronouncing, Captain Hammad, a fellow military man and the accused in the case, innocent before the judicial enquiry was completed. Following the rape, riots erupted in the local Bugti clan of the province, where the rape took place. They saw a rape in their heartland as being a breach of their code of honour and attacked the gas plant. In an uncomprimising response Musharraf sent tanks, helicopters and an extra 4,500 soldiers to guard the installation. If the tribesmen failed to stop shooting, he warned on television, "they will not know what hit them".Shazia was later forced and threatened by the government to leave the country.

    In an interview to the Washington Post in September 2005 Musharraf said that Pakistani women, who were the victims of rape, treated rape as a "moneymaking concern" and were only interested in the publicity in order to make money and get a Canadian visa. He subsequently denied making these comments, but the Washington Post made available an audio recording of the interview, in which Musharraf could be heard making the quoted remarks. Musharraf also denied Mukhtaran Mai, a Pakistani rape victim, the right to travel abroad, until pressured by US State Department. The remarks made by Musharraf sparked outrage and protests both internationally and in Pakistan by various groups i.e. women groups, activists. In a rally, held close to the presidential palace and Pakistan's parliament, hundreds of women demonstrated in Pakistan demanding Musharraf apologize for the controversial remarks about female rape victims.

    S.M. Naseem, a columnist in the Pakistani daily, Dawn, wrote 'What has enraged most Pakistani women, as well as public opinion, is governmental and judicial apathy and the attempt by people at the highest level to hush these cases. When such attempts are exposed, the government's first reaction is to pretend to be puzzled, then to deny its involvement and claim it has been misquoted or misinterpreted, and finally to denounce these critics as unpatriotic and having agendas.'[ Dawn, rounded on General Musharraf in an editorial headlined "Wrong thing to say". International reactions included the Canadian Prime Minister, Paul Martin, who condemned the remarks. Amnesty International said 'This callous and insulting statement requires a public apology from President Musharraf to the women of Pakistan and especially to victims of rape, sexual assault and other forms of violence that are rampant with impunity in Pakistan. His statement is an offence to women all over the world.' MP and president of Policy Planning for the Pakistan Peoples Party, Sherry Rehman said it was shocking that Musharraf 'had publicly aired his low opinion of women'. Kamran Shafi, a retired army officer and a trenchant critic of a medieval and militarised Pakistan, condemned the remarks in an angry column headlined 'Do you want a Canadian visa?'

    Ethnic Minorities Rights

    General Pervez Musharraf upon assuming power promised protection of the rights of religious minorities and an end to the culture of religious intolerance. A Christian, Derick Cyprian, was appointed as a federal minister and the government undertook to repeal all discriminatory laws. There have been some positive developments in according basic rights to religious minorities, although in real terms their impact has been nullified by the growth of extremism and intolerance within the fabric of the society. General Musharraf has continued with his promise that religious minorities will be protected, and there are limited signs that Christians, Hindus (and, to a lesser extent, the Ahmaddiyas) are not being overtly discriminated against with regard to public positions. In August 2005, Justice Rana Bhagwandas (a Hindu) was sworn in as acting Chief Justice. Among noticeable positive steps taken by the military government are the declaration of the abolition of separate electorates, apparent curbs on extremist and sectarian groups, and a sense of inclusivity of all religious communities. The thaw in the relations with India allowed greater influx of Hindu and Sikh pilgrims and, during 2004-5, the Punjab government allocated funds to renovate the Krishna Mandir temple in Lahore. In addition, the Pakistani Constitution reserves 10 national assembly seats for religious minorities.

    Corruption issues

    When Musharraf came to power in 1999, he claimed that the corruption in the government bureaucracy would be cleaned up.

    In 2001, according to a survey conducted by Transparency International, Pakistan was ranked as the world's 11th most corrupt nation. However, by 2002 Pakistan's rating had improved 13 places within the year, to be ranked 24th. By 2007, Pakistan was ranked 138th out of 179 countries, placing it as the 41st most corrupt country in 2007. Overall, under Musharraf's regime, Pakistan's rating improved by 30 places.

    Suspension and reinstatement of the Chief Justice

    On 9 March 2007, Musharraf suspended the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, pressing corruption charges against him and filed a reference against the Chief Justice, in the Supreme Judicial Council according to Article 209(2) and Article 209(5)(b) of the Constitution of Pakistan. Thus on 13 March 2007, when the Supreme Judicial Council met, it was headed by Acting Chief Justice Javed Iqbal.

    Text of presidential reference against Chief Justice included:

    1- There are complaints of orders being verbally announced in open court in favor of one party and subsequently a written order at variance from the order announced in court being delivered. Two such cases have acquired particular notoriety. In one of these two cases it is alleged that amounts as large as Rs.55million may have been involved.

    2- Chief Justice had intimidated civil servants, including pressuring an administrator, to influence by his position to gain undue advantage by "insisting" on an increase and enhancement in his entitlements or in securing the relaxation of the rules in that respect.

    3- Chief Justice influenced government offices to promote his son's career. On 22 June 2005 Dr. Arsalan Iftikhar was appointed as Medical Officer/Demonstrator in the Institute of Public Health, Quetta.

    4- Chief Justice Chaudhry had received hundreds of thousands of rupees for reimbursement of gasoline for his car. The receipts he submitted were for a pump that only sold diesel fuel. Chief Justice had claimed reimbursement for airfare for his wife and children when he was not entitled to claim it.

    5- Chief Justice had arranged for the allotment of a plot of land in Karachi to which he was not entitled.

    Musharraf's moves sparked protests among Pakistani lawyers. On 12 March 2007, lawyers started Judicial Activism across Pakistan and began boycotting all court procedures in protest against the suspension. In Islamabad, as well as other cities such as Lahore, Karachi and Quetta, hundreds of lawyers dressed in black suits attended rallies, condemning the suspension as unconstitutional. Slowly the expressions of support for the ousted Chief Justice gathered momentum and by May, protesters and opposition parties took out huge rallies against Musharraf and his tenure as army chief was also challenged in the courts.

    On 20 July, the Supreme Court reinstated Chaudhry. Delivering the court's verdict, presiding Judge Khalil-ur-Rehman Ramday said: "The reference [against Mr Chaudhry] has been set aside and the chief justice has been reinstated."

    "The president respects the decision of the Supreme Court," Gen Musharraf's spokesman was quoted as saying by the state-run Associated Press of Pakistan. "The president has stated earlier that any judgement the Supreme Court arrives at will be honoured, respected and adhered to," the spokesman said.

    “I would like to emphasise that we must all accept the verdict with grace and dignity reflective of a mature nation" Shaukat Aziz accepted Supreme Court verdict. All Federal ministers and senior Pakistan Muslim League leaders said the government had accepted the Supreme Court’s verdict to reinstate the chief justice of Pakistan.

    PPP Co-chairman Asif Ali Zardari also has reportedly refused to reinstate the sacked chief justice of Pakistan (CJP) Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, apparently due to the fear that the latter, if reinstated, might reopen for adjudication cases on the National Reconciliation Order. During a meeting of leaders of the ruling coalition in Lahore on 23 July 2008, Zardari repeatedly insisted on not reinstating Chaudhry, reported the Daily Times.

    Lal Masjid siege

    The Musharraf government was forced to act against the Lal Masjid militants, after they formally announced the establishment of a parallel judicial system. The pro-Taliban Lal Masjid administration vowed to enforce Islamic laws in the federal capital and threatened to unleash a wave of suicide bombers if the government took any action to counter it. “Our youth will commit suicide attacks, if the government impedes the enforcement of the Sharia and attacks Lal Masjid and its sister seminaries,” Maulana Abdul Aziz, the in-charge of the mosque said in his Friday sermon.

    The standoff between the Pakistani government and the clerics of the Lal Masjid in Islamabad finally broke down on the morning of 8 July 2007, when the official government delegation led by Shujaat Hussain declared that the negotiations with the militants holed up in the mosque have reached an agreement. However, the clerics refused to release the hostages as promised by them in the agreement. Musharraf had given the militants some six months to lay down arms and abide the law of country. The government managed to recover 1,300 men, women and children during the operation. Some of these women, who were recovered safely on the last day of the operation, had their written death wishes with them. Six hundred suicide bombers are present in Karachi revealed Qasim Toori and Danish alias Talha during interrogations by law-enforcement agencies. Most of the suicide bombers are also former students of Islamabad’s Lal Masjid.

    Relations with Benazir Bhutto

    Also on 8 August 2007, Benazir Bhutto spoke about her secret meeting with Musharraf on 27 July, in an interview on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

    On 14 September 2007, Deputy Information Minister Tariq Azim stated that Bhutto won't be deported, but must face corruption suits against her. He clarified Sharif's and Bhutto's right to return to Pakistan: "Nawaz Sharif's case was different. He went back to Saudi Arabia because of an undertaking he had with the Saudi government; She (Bhutto) was always allowed to come back." Pakistan People's Party Farhatullah Babar said that Benazir Bhutto will forthwith declare the exact date of her return: "We are announcing the date of the return for Benazir Bhutto to Pakistan at 5:00 p.m. (1200 GMT)" (Makhdoom Amin Fahim will publish it at a news conference in Islamabad." Musharraf faced a rising militant violence, with a suicide bombing killing 15 elite commandos on 13 September. Bhutto declared her return from eight years exile on 18 October. Makhdoom Amin Faheem, vice chair of Pakistan Peoples Party said that "Benazir Bhutto will be landing in Karachi on 18 October."

    On 17 September 2007, Bhutto accused Musharraf's allies of pushing Pakistan to crisis by refusal to restore democracy and share power. Sheikh Rashid Ahmed stated that officials had agreed to grant Benazir Bhutto amnesty in pending corruption charges.

    Musharraf called for a three day mourning period after Bhutto's assassination on 27 December 2007.

    Resignation from the Army

    On 2 October 2007, Musharraf named Lt. Gen. Ashfaq Kayani as vice chief of the army starting 8 October. When Musharraf resigned from military on 28 November 2007, Kayani became Chief of Army Staff.

    Return of Nawaz Sharif

    Sharif returned to Pakistan in September 2007, and was immediately arrested and taken into custody at the airport.

    Saudi intelligence chief Muqran bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud and Lebanese politician Saad Hariri arrived separately in Islamabad on 8 September 2007, the former with a message from Saudi King Abdullah and the latter after a meeting with Nawaz Sharif in London. After meeting President General Pervez Musharraf for two-and-a-half hours, Prince Muqrin and Hariri addressed an unprecedented joint press conference at Army House, telling journalists that "Nawaz was bound under the agreement not to return to Pakistan before ten years in exile. We sincerely hope that Nawaz Sharif honours this agreement,” Prince Muqrin said. Asked about the details of the agreement, Prince Muqrin waved a copy of the agreement to the media and said: “It is here and signed.”

    On arrival in Saudi Arabia, Nawaz Sharif was received by Prince Muqrin bin Abdul Aziz, the Saudi intelligence chief, who had met Musharraf in Islamabad the previous day. That meeting had been followed by a rare press conference, at which he had warned that Sharif should not violate the terms of King Abdullah's agreement of staying out of politics for 10 years.

    2007 presidential elections

    In a March 2007 interview, Musharraf said that he intended to stay in the office for another five years.

    A nine-member panel of Supreme Court judges deliberated on six petitions (including Jamaat-e-Islami's, Pakistan's largest Islamic group) for disqualification of Musharraf as presidential candidate. Bhutto stated that her party may join other opposition groups, including Sharif's. Attorney-general Malik Mohammed Qayyum stated that, pendente lite, the Election Commission was "reluctant" to announce the schedule for the presidential vote.

    On 24 September 2007, the president of the Supreme Court bar association, Munir Malik, announced that former Supreme Court judge Wajihuddin Ahmed would challenge Musharraf in Pakistan's October presidential election. Ahmad had little chance of defeating Musharraf (since the president is elected by parliament and provincial assemblies).

    On 28 September 2007, in a 6-3 vote, the court presided by Judge Rana Bhagwandas ruled: "These petitions are held to be non-maintainable." The judgment removed obstacles to Musharraf's election bid.

    1- PML-Q government passed a constitutional amendment in National Assembly, with 2/3 majority, also approved by Senate that allowed President Musharraf to hold dual offices.

    2- Constitution of Pakistan - Article 63 clause (1) paragraph (d), read with proviso to Article 41 clause (7) paragraph (b), allows the President to hold dual office.

    3- Supreme Court of Pakistan on 28 September 2007, allowed President Musharraf to stand for elections in October 2007.

    4- President Musharraf was elected President of Pakistan, on 6 October 2007, by a combined electoral of the Senate, National Assembly and the FOUR Provincial Assembles.

    5- President Musharraf won by 58% votes declared in November 2007, as the constitutional President of Pakistan!

    Emergency declared in Pakistan

    On 3 November 2007 Musharraf declared emergency rule across Pakistan. He suspended the Constitution, imposed State of Emergency, and fired the chief justice of the Supreme Court.[100] While addressing the nation on State Television, Musharraf declared that the state of emergency was imposed in the country. In Islamabad, troops entered the Supreme Court building, arrested the judges and kept them under detention in their homes. Troops were deployed inside state-run TV and radio stations, while independent channels went off air.

    Pakistani general election, 2008

    On 23 March 2008, President Musharraf said an "era of democracy" has begun in Pakistan. He has put the country "on the track of development and progress." On 22 March, the Pakistan Peoples Party named former parliament speaker Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani as its candidate for the country's next prime minister, to lead a coalition government united against him. A confirmation vote is scheduled for 24 March 2008 in parliament, and the prime minister would be sworn in by Musharraf 25 March 2008.

    The statistics of the Election Commission, showed party position as follows, in the February 2008 elecions.

    The PML-Q and its allies: 10,844,233 votes. (40%)

    The PPP-P: 10,055,491 votes. (37%)

    PML-N: 6,240,343 votes. (23%)

    Total votes cast: 27.14 million

    Impeachment movement and resignation

    On 7 August 2008, the Pakistan Peoples Party and the Pakistan Muslim League (N) agreed to force Musharraf to step down and begin his impeachment. Asif Ali Zardari and Nawaz Sharif announced sending a formal request or joint charge sheet that he step down, and impeach him through parliamentary process upon refusal. Musharraf, however, said: “I will defeat those who try to push me to the wall. If they use their right to oust me, I have the right to defend myself." Musharraf, accordingly delayed his departure for the Beijing Olympics, by a day. A senior coalition official told Reuters: "Yes, we have agreed in principle to impeach him." The draft of the ruling coalition’s joint statement had been finalized by the draft Committee, and Musharraf would have to obtain vote of confidence from the National Assembly and 4 provincial assemblies. The government summoned the national assembly, or lower house of parliament, to sit on 11 August. Capt. Wasif Syed, spokesman for the Pakistan People's Party—confirmed: "A decision has been made that he has to go now, and all the parties have agreed on this point.". It is speculated that Pervez Musharraf would have had to face corruption and even murder charges if he had kept refusing a graceful exit from the president house.

    On Monday, 18 August 2008, in a speech defending his record, Musharraf announced that he had resigned.

    When announcing his resignation, Musharraf, 65, said: "After viewing the situation and consulting legal advisers and political allies, with their advice I have decided to resign. I leave my future in the hands of people. Not a single charge in the impeachment can stand against me. No charge can be proved against me because I never did anything for myself, it was all for Pakistan. On the map of the world, Pakistan is now an important country, by the grace of Allah. Whether I win or lose the impeachment, the nation will lose. They don’t realize they can succeed against me but the country will undergo irreparable damage. My resignation will go to the speaker of the National Assembly today.” In an emotional one-hour speech, Musharraf raised his clenched fists to chest height, and said, “Long live Pakistan!”

    "Nonetheless, despite his mistakes, he has been that rare phenomenon in Pakistani politics — an honest man with good intentions who tried to serve his country to the best of his abilities. In a country that has suffered so much over the years from corrupt and self-serving politicians, there have been too few figures like him" Honorable act by Musharraf - Arab News Editorial

    Approval ratings

    In early 2007, Musharraf was extremely popular. According to a US survey, IRI President General Pervez Musharraf was more popular in Pakistan than opposition leaders Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif. Around 37 percent of the respondents were of the view that Musharraf's supported PML-Q deserved to be re-elected.

    However, by August 2007, after the lawyers Judicial Activism started, Musharraf became slightly unpopular in Pakistan due to persistent media efforts and anti-Musharraf talk shows. An International Republican Institute survey, taken of 3000 people, showed that 64 percent of the population did not want another term to be granted to Musharraf as the president of Pakistan.

    Musharraf's popularity grew after his resignation and several pro-Musharraf websites and groups on Facebook emerged.

    In the most recent interview with Musharraf, Daphne Barak admits that she receives mails and people have started missing Musharraf: "Many emails are relatively flattering to you. I even have emails from PPP members who say that they never thought they will miss you, but they do. Especially young people!"

    Life after Presidency

    After resignation, Musharraf went for an expected pilgrimage to Mecca. It was thought he might also continue his travelling on a lucrative speaking tour through Middle East, Europe and United States. Chicago-based Embark LLC was one of the international public-relations firms trying to land Musharraf as a highly paid keynote speaker According to Embark President David B. Wheeler, the speaking fee for Musharraf would be in the $150,000-200,000 range for a day plus jet and other V.I.P. arrangements on the ground.

    Musharraf disclosed that he planned to jump back into full time politics but not until he had moved into his newly constructed house in Chak Shahzad in Rawalpindi/Islamabad as he did not want to misuse the army house for political purposes.

    His speech at the Amway Grand Plaza Hotel in January 2009 marked his first U.S. appearance since he left office in 2008, as he was embarking on an international speaking tour. The former president pleaded for understanding in his country's fight against terrorism, in a region deemed central to the outcome of that battle. "Pakistan has confronted terrorism and extremism for more than two decades now," Pervez Musharraf said in a speech to about 500 people at the World Affairs Council of Western Michigan event.

    Regarding the Lahore attack on Sri Lankan players, Musharraf criticized the police commandos' inability to kill any of the gunmen, saying "If this was the elite force I would expect them to have shot down those people who attacked them, the reaction, their training should be on a level that if anyone shoots toward the company they are guarding, in less than three seconds they should shoot the man down."

    Article 6 trial

    The PML Nawaz have tried to get Pervez Musharraf to stand trial in an article 6 trial for treason in relation to the emergency on November 3, 2007, which Musharraf signed as Chief of Army Staff instead of in his position as President of Pakistan, yet revoked it as the President of Pakistan, also revoking the PCO of 3 November.

    The Prime Minister of Pakistan Yousaf Raza Gilani has said a consensus resolution is required in national assembly for an article 6 trial of Pervez Musharraf “I have no love lost for Musharraf ... if parliament decides to try him, I will be with parliament. Article 6 cannot be applied to one individual ... those who supported him are today in my cabinet and some of them have also joined the PML-N ... the MMA, the MQM and the PML-Q supported him ... this is why I have said that it is not doable,” said the Prime Minister while informally talking to editors and also replying to questions by journalists at an Iftar-dinner he had hosted for them.

    Meanwhile, Proclamation of Emergency and Revocation is the constitutional right of the President of Pakistan, according to the constitution of Pakistan, Article 232 and Article 236. On 15 February 2008, the Supreme Court has delivered detailed judgement to validate the Proclamation of Emergency on 3 November 2007, the Provisional Constitution Order No 1 of 2007 and the Oath of Office (Judges) Order, 2007.

    Saudi Arabia have agreements in place to stop any article 6 trial in Pakistan in relation to Pervez Musharraf according to the newspapers due to Saudi Arabia's long standing friendship with all of the political parties in Pakistan. Sharif is under tremendous pressure from Saudi Arabia to shun his demand for Musharraf’s trial under the Article Six of the Constitution.

    The President of PML-Q, Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain has said that those vying for article 6 against Musharraf to suffer and would themselves get embroiled in trouble, Secretary General of PML-Q Mushahid Hussain Sayed, also ruled out Musharraf’s trial under Article-6 of the Constitution.

    Cases

    Abbottabad's district and sessions judge in a missing person's case passed judgment asking the authorities to declare Pervez Musharraf a proclaimed offender.

    Launch of All Pakistan Muslim League

    Despite being in self-exile, Musharraf launched his own political party, the All Pakistan Muslim League, in June 2010.

    Legacy

    Musharraf characterizes himself as a moderate leader with liberal, progressive ideas, and has expressed admiration for Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Turkish Republic. President Musharraf led a team of economists and professionals along with ex-PM Shaukat Aziz, to mark their achievements. The economic achievements caused Pakistan to emerge as a geo-strategic important country with a 100% better economy. In 2006, Pakistan was the 3rd fastest growing economy of the world and world’s preferred destination for Investment. His vision and policies helped Pakistan come out of the list of Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) while setting it on path of prosperity, growth and economic reforms. His era ushered in multi-national corporations].

    President Musharraf moved aggressively to privatize the economy, reduce poverty and Pakistan's foreign debt, and allow the press more freedom. Statements issued by the government suggest significant improvement in the economy. Pakistan's Economy boomed from a mere worth of $75 billion in 1999 to become $170 billion in 2008. Debt servicing in ratio to GDP also decreased significantly.

    The business and finance side thrived under his strong-armed stewardship. Pakistan won approval of global capital markets, with highlights being the $800 million Regulation S Rule 144A sovereign bond, including a 30 year tranche, and a ground breaking GDR from Muslim Commercial Bank.

    It was under Musharraf's liberal policies that led to freedom of media and from one state run television PTV, above 50 channels List of Pakistani television stations were given license to operate. Pakistan saw an era of huge influx of television and radio channels.

    Dr. Mahjabeen Islam says, "The vibrancy of Pakistan’s press is proven by the fact that many an expatriate obtains their news from Pakistan’s news sources rather than the post-9/11 throttled and slanted media bytes that one gets in the United States. And to give credit where it’s due, media freedom will remain as General Musharraf’s positive legacy".

    Xenia Dormandy, Executive Director for Research at Harvard University's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, says Pervez Musharraf is in a difficult situation, given Pakistan's political turmoil, its war on terror and its relations with its neighbors and the United States. "He is squeezed between his relationship with the U.S. and our desires, the improving relationship with India, the historical relationship with Afghanistan and, at the same time, domestic political constraints, and the long-term tribal interests of much of his population," says Dormandy. Some experts who view the General in a sympathetic light agree. Among them is analyst Michael Krepon, co-founder of the non-profit Henry L. Stimson Center in Washington, who adds that the complexities of Pakistani society must be taken into account when looking at Pervez Musharraf.

    Dr Shirin M Mazari, an Islamabad-based analyst says, "Musharraf has done a lot for women. He has increased their representation in Parliament. He has given a wider public space to women. He will not leave behind the negative legacy that Zia left."

    The Brookings Institution's Steven Cohen says, "He's going to have a difficult time leaving a permanent imprint on Pakistan, partly because the material he is dealing with is so intractable. He'd like to get an agreement on Kashmir. But India is not into compromising much more, if at all, even though Musharraf has come a long way in terms of Pakistan's position. He'd like to reform Pakistani politics and the Pakistan economy. But that's very, very hard to do, in part, because politics can't be reformed from the top and, in part, because the economy has been so badly abused over the decades and it's in a really serious shape." Even those who would like to see Pervez Musharraf's "enlightened" vision for Pakistan succeed warn that there is no telling what next year's election may bring.

    "He's a man who has a very high opinion of himself based on his performance in the Army and his professional education and his training. He believes - - and I think others would agree - - because Pakistan has a shortage of civilian leaders, that's why the military has to be involved. He once compared himself to Atatürk [i.e., Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey] and said Atatürk was his role model. But clearly, he's a man who has a larger vision of things and believes that he can do great things for Pakistan and for the world," says Cohen.

    After Musharraf left office of the President, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice offered "deep gratitude" for his original decision to join the U.S.-led fight against extremists. She called Musharraf "one of the world's most committed partners in the war against terrorism."

    By most accounts, General Pervez Musharraf had a grand vision for Pakistan, one that sought to put it on a path of what he called "Enlightened Moderation."

    Return to politics and a new military coup

    Since quitting politics in 2008, Musharraf has been residing in London, the U.K in a self-imposed exile. In late September 2010, speaking at a debate, Musharraf confirmed that he would be launching a new political party in October to contest the upcomingelections in Pakistan in 2013 but refused to say, when he would return to Pakistan, where he could face treason charges. He also warned of a new military coup and said the military must play a bigger role in order to gain stability in Pakistan.

    On October 1, 2010 in a packed press conference of cheering supporters in Westminister, Musharraf officially launched his political comeback and his new party, All Pakistan Muslim League saying that the current Pakistani leadership had failed.


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    Re: Musharraf’s regime VS recent democratic Era



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