Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), the "father of optics" and pioneer of the modernscientific method, invented the camera obscura and pinhole camera.In ancient times, Euclid and Ptolemy believed that the eyes emitted rays whichenabled us to see. The first person to realise that rays of light enters the eye,rather than leaving it, was the 10th century Muslim mathematician, astronomerand physicist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), who is regarded as the "father ofoptics".He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from aphilosophical activity to an experimental one, with his development of thescientific method. The word "camera" comes from the Arabic word qamara for adark or private room.
Ibn al-Haytham first described pinhole camera after noticing the way light camethrough a hole in window shutters.
Ibn al-Haytham worked out that the smaller the hole, the better the picture,and set up the first camera obscura, a precursor to the modern camera.
Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), the father of chemistry, invented the alembic stilland many chemicals, including distilled alcohol, and established the perfumeindustry.Early forms of distillation were known to the Babylonians, Greeks and Egyptianssince ancient times, but it was Muslim chemists who first invented puredistillation processes which could fully purify chemical substances. They alsodeveloped several different variations of distillation (such as dry distillation,destructive distillation and steam distillation) and introduced new distillationaparatus (such as the alembic, still, and retort), and invented a variety of newchemical processes and over 2,000 chemical substances.
Geber first invented the following chemical processes in the 8th century:Pure distillation (al-taqtir) which could fully purify chemical substances withthe alembic